Introduction to Civil Rights Part 2

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What was Thurgood Marshall's argument for the Brown case?
Against the 14th Amendment
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What did Chief Justice Earl Warren judge in the Brown case?
Even if equal, separate facilities were psychologically harmful to black children and Supreme Court agreed against Eisenhower's wishes
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What was Eisenhower's view of the Brown case?
Thought it counterproductive as led to opposition to black civil rights rather than desegregation
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Was a date set by Brown case for desegregation to occur by?
No
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Did Brown combat de facto racism?
No
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How did some school boards in old confederacy states combat the Brown ruling/
Manipulated entrty criteria
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What was the achievement of Brown?
Overturned Plessy v Ferguson and removed constitutional sanction for racial segregation
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Within a year, what percentage of schools in Washington D.C. and six border states had desegregated?
70% within a year of the 1954 Brown Ruling
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What was the response by most southern politicians to Brown?
Signed the Southern Manifesto in 1954
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What did Brown lead directly to?
Little Rock 1957
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What did Eisenhower say when the governor of Texas used state troops rto prevent integraton?
The federal government no power to intervene
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What was the significance of Brown to black Americans??
Believed beginning of end of segregation and campaigners believed that Supreme Court would back legal challenges in other areas
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How did Brown lead to the mobilisation of blacks?
Increased local activism with NAACP and CORE organising new voter registration campaigns and local protests against different aspects of segregation
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What did the White Citizen's Council in the South demand in 1954?
Segregation continue in local schools
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What was the action of the White Citizen's Council regarding education?
Raised money to support white state schools to become private
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What was the negative result of Brown for the NAACP?
Sustained attack against them and were even banned by state court from Alabama
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When Emmett Till wolf whistled at a white girl his body was pulled from a Mississippi river. Why did his mother hold an open casket funeral?
To show "what they did to my boy."
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What did the lawyer defending accused of Emmett Till murder say in defence?
" every Anglo-Saxon one of us has the courage to free"
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Crazily, what did the lawyer defending the Emmett Till accused say?
That he could be alive in Chicago as part of an NAACP plot
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How long did it take the all white jury in the Emmett Till case to deliberate?
Around an hour on the grounds that the state had failed to identify the body
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What did the accused in the Emmett Till case do months after their acquittal?
In a magazine interview they admitted to killing him - protected by double jeopardy
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What allowed the spread of information about the Till death?
His mother insisted on open casket funeral, thousands attended or viewed his casket, photos of his body in black orientated magazines, newspaper scrutiny around US on state of civil rights in Mississippi
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What did one letter to a newspaper say on the Till murder?
Now is the time for every citizen who loves the state of Mississippi to 'Stand up and be counted' before hoodlum white trash brings us to destruction
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How did the Chicago Mayor and Illinois mayor become slightly involved in the Till case?
Urged Governor White to ensure justice done
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What did a white jury member say on the length of time it took to deliberate on the Till case?
"If we hadn't stopped to drink pop, it wouldn't have taken that long."
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What was significant about the fact that the Till case made it to court at all?
First time white men charged with murder of black in Mississippi
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Did Eisenhower make comment on the Till murder?
No
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What was significant about the lawyer who defended the Till accused?
His brother was a congressman and a leading democrat
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What did the Till murder and case encourage many blacks to do?
Become civil rights activists
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Although Eisenhower said he would support federal court order, did he speak out for Autherine Lucy?
No
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What had Autherine Lucy done?
Took uni to federal court for admission but expelled when they claimed that she did not have required qualifications (she did)
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What is clear about the NAACP choice of cases from Autherine Lucy?
Chose cases they knew that they could win
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What did Eisenhower seem to believe about race relations?
That they would improve on their own
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Did Eisenhower support the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
No
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When does Mark Newman (2004) believe that the foundations for the civil rights achievements of 1960s were laid?
During World War II
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What did 1980s studies of local community action emphasise?
Civil rights origins in 1930s and 1940s owning much to do New Deal, WWII and continued work of NAACP
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What did John Dittmer (1994) believe about civil rights pre-1955?
"civil rights struggle" if not a "civil rights movement" long before 1955
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What does Fairclough argue about challenges pre-1955?q
"earlier challenges did not have the force of post 1955 protests", the "undercurrent of discontent.. unstructured and ineffective... individual defiance did not add up to collective resistance"
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What did a platoon sergeant from segregated South Carolina who was in WWII say about the inclusion of blacks?
"After that first day when we saw how they fought I changed my mind. They're just like any of the other boys to us."
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What reason did Truman give for legal equality for black people?
"because he is a human being and a natural born American"
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In 1946 what was Truman's horror directed at?
white violence at "Negro soldiers, just back from overseas"
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What did protestor in 1943 Detroit Race Riots say about working alongside blacks?
"I'd rather see Hitler and Hirohito win"
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What was the wording of Plessy v Ferguson
"If a race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane"
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How did Eisenhower describe his decision to make Earl Warren Chief Justice?
"the biggest damn fool mistake I ever made"
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What was Truman's response to attacks on black servicemen returning from war?
(on specific attack)"nothing is done about it by the State Authorities, something is radically wrong with the system"
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What did the writers of To Secure These Rights link the need for immediate action to?
Cold War
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What was the wording of the link in To Secure These Rights to the cold ar?
"the United States is not so strong, and the triumph of our democracy is not so sure, that we can ignore what the world thinks of us."
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Card 2

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What did Chief Justice Earl Warren judge in the Brown case?

Back

Even if equal, separate facilities were psychologically harmful to black children and Supreme Court agreed against Eisenhower's wishes

Card 3

Front

What was Eisenhower's view of the Brown case?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Was a date set by Brown case for desegregation to occur by?

Back

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Card 5

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Did Brown combat de facto racism?

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