Introduction to the Liver (4.2.1)

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What are liver cells called?
Hepatocytes.
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What two sources supply the liver with blood?
The hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein.
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What does the hepatic artery do?
Leads directly from the aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the liver cells for aerobic respiration.
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What does the hepatic portal vein do?
Leads from the small intestine to the liver. This blood has already passed through the capillaries in the intestinal wall, so has lost most of its oxygen. It is deoxygenated by the time it reaches the liver.
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Why does blood from the intestines go to the liver before flowing to the rest of the body?
The conc. of substances absorbed into the blood from digestion need regulating before travelling round the body. Also, blood coming from the gut could also contain toxic substances that were absorbed with the food. The liver can detoxify these.
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What is the blood vessel leaving the liver?
The hepatic vein. It carries blood back to the vena cava so it can be transported back to the heart.
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What is the role of bile?
It is a secretion made by the liver, temporarily stored in the gall bladder, and released into the intestines when needed. It helps with the digestion of lipids.
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What is histology?
The study of tissues.
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What do hepatocytes make up?
Liver lobules.
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Describe the route of the blood in the liver.
The HA and HPV enter liver & split into smaller vessels which run between & parallel to the lobules. The blood then flows through the sinusoids, where it exchanges substances with the liver cells. The blood then drains into HP and leaves the liver.
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What happens to the bile in the liver?
It is made by liver cells and then collected by tiny channels called canaliculi (runs opposite direction to blood). These then drain into branches of the bile duct, which transports the bile to the gall bladder for storage.
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Name 4 functions of the liver.
Protein synthesis. Storage of carbohydrates. Breakdown of old red blood cells. Detoxification of alcohol and drugs.
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Give one way in which the liver is specialised.
The rows of hepatocytes are never more than 2 cells thick, so that each individual liver cell has close contact with the blood.
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Why are there lots of mitochondria in liver cells?
So aerobic respiration can take place to produce ATP. This provides energy for all the reactions going on.
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Why are there lots of ribosomes in liver cells?
For protein synthesis- to make any enzymes needed.
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What are Kupffer cells?
They are specialised macrophages (phagocytic white blood cells).
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What do the Kupffer cells do?
They can move about in the liver sinuses and their main job is to break down and recycle old red blood cells. They also deal with bacteria that enter the liver.
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Why is faeces brown?
One of the products from breaking down haemoglobin is bilirubin, which is then excreted in the bile and faeces.
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Card 2

Front

What two sources supply the liver with blood?

Back

The hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein.

Card 3

Front

What does the hepatic artery do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the hepatic portal vein do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why does blood from the intestines go to the liver before flowing to the rest of the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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