Introduction to social psychology

What is social psychology?
The scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
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What are the two behaviours of humans?
Overt (driving, fighting) and more subtle (non verbal behaviour)
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Shove (2010)
Beyond ABC (Attitudes, behaviour, choice), models and concepts of social change restrictive
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What is focused on?
Individuals and behavioural choices and context as a 'catch all' variable, does not consider societal transformation - maintains status quo
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What did Whitmarsh, O'Neill and Lorenzoni (2010) suggest?
Overly simplistic portrayal of societal psychological models, separating of disciplinary perspectives
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What is the sociological approach not useful for?
Practical solutions
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What should individuals be a part of?
the solution alongside policy and social change
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What is ignored?
What political change needed to overcome current status quo
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What are the methodological issues?
Scientific methods to study social behaviour, hypotheses formed on the basis of a theory, empirical tests can falsify hypotheses
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Why is methodological pluralism important?
Minimises possibility that finding an artefact of method
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What are social psychological methods for?
Largely experimental - manipulation of IV and examining impacts on dependent variables
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What happens in lab conditions?
Low in external validity, high in internal validity
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What else is done?
Careful minimisation of demand characteristics, avoidance confounding - other factors vary in the line with IV
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What was included?
Random assignment of participants to conditions, many now conducted online, risk of increased error and unknown variables
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What is a field experiment?
Manipulate IV in the real world
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What is a field study?
No iv manipulation, observed differences
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What is their less control over?
Variables, random assignment sometimes difficult, difficult to observe without influencing, prone to experimental bias in observations
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What is the survey research?
Questionnaire or structured interview - Response set – purposeful or unintentional - Generalisation good given large samples possible - Careful interpretation needed
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What is the first research ethics?
Privacy, anonymity, confidentiality, reporting, destruction of data
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What is the second research ethics?
Natural behaviour, naive pps --> 50-75% of exp some degree a) No other non deceptive means exists, b) possibility of significant contribution to science, c) deception not expected to cause harm
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What is the fourth research ethics?
Informed consent: study info, written at any point/no reason
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What is the Hawthorne effect?
Individuals change their behaviour as a result of their awareness of being studied
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What is the fifth research ethics?
Debriefing: Explain rationale/context, justify deception, leaves without effects
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What is behaviourism?
Behaviour associated with positive situations or outcomes is increased
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What ideas did it originate from?
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning
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What is neo-behaviourism?
Rather than focusing solely on studying behaviour intervening constructs that are not observable are important
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For example?
Beliefs, feelings, motives
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What is social modelling?
We imitate behaviour that is reinforced in others, exaggerate extent to which people are passive to the situation
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What is cognitive psychology?
We actively interpret and change our environment through our thinking, our cognitive processses and representations
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What are the origins in gestalt theory?
Social cognition currently dominant - how cognitive processes and representations are constructed and influence behaviour
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What is evolutionary social psychology?
Our behaviour is based on the ancestral part of the human development
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What theories is it based on?
General evolutionary psychology and Darwinian theory
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What are useful traits?
Adaptations that have developed through natural selection
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What is the same for the complex social behaviours?
Those that have survival value, e.g. cooperative, aggression will be passed on
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For example?
Can our genes account sufficiently account for the complexity of human behaviour
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What is the personality theory?
Our behaviour is depending on enduring individual differences and characteristics, people behave differently in different situations
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What is the collectivist theory?
People internally represent socially constructed group norms that influence behaviour, contrast with personality theories as top down from group to individual
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What is the neuroscience and biochemistry theory?
o Psychological processes happen in the brain and therefore must be associated with electro-chemical brain activity
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What has been found out about recent data?
Fraudalent data
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What is reductionism?
Overly reduces the complexity of an issue
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What does it explain a phenomena with?
Language and concepts at an overly low level of analysis, society in terms of groups, cognition in terms of neuropsychology
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What did Doise suggest?
Accept existence of different levels of explanation but must have a focus on constructing theories that formally integrate concepts from different levels
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What is positivism?
Science as a religion
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What is found?
- Non-critical acceptance of scientific method - Study of humans – ourselves – therefore biased, cannot be objective - Also devalues and ignores subjective and introspective data
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For example?
Operational definitions - defining theoretical constructs in a way that allows measurement and retesting
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What is hindsight bias?
Tendency for people to see a given outcome as obvious once actual outcome known
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What is community response to fraud?
Data sharing: Depositing anonymised data sets in shared repoistories, costly in time
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What is pre register studies?
Indicates analyses in advance, center for open science, time consuming, still relies on honest reporting
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What is replication of studies?
10 out of 13 effects replicated, 1 weakly supported, 2 not supported
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What do statistical developments do?
Detect fraudulent data
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the two behaviours of humans?


Overt (driving, fighting) and more subtle (non verbal behaviour)

Card 3


Shove (2010)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is focused on?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Whitmarsh, O'Neill and Lorenzoni (2010) suggest?


Preview of the front of card 5
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