Introduction to Language

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 27-01-16 19:05
Behaviourism
No internal representations/ trail and error/ reinforcement
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Chomsky
Knowledge plus innate constraint
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2 types of grammatical rules
Prescriptive rules- how language should be used, value judgement/ Descriptive rules- how language is normally used, rules for slang
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Grammatical rules
ability to process novel grammatical sentences, don't depend on meaning, rules depend on grammatical constituents
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Words are symbols
arbitrary relationship between form-meaning pairs
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Ververt monkeys
3 words- eagle, leopard, snake
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Pepperberg
Alex the parrot- names ****, can answer questions, expresses desires, each word takes same amount of time to learn
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Human lexicons open systems
limitless vocab/ fast learning/ fast mapping of new words
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Rico the dog
200 German words- can use process of elimination
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Compositionality
sentence-meaning pairs not arbitrary
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Kanzi the bonobo chimp
Mother taught lexigram language, never aquired, Kanzi aquired without training, understands spoken english
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Does he understand compositionality?
can use sentence structure to do novel actions that are reversible/ understands adjective-noun combinations/ can't use social language
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Grammatical constituents
Set of words that could replace another in a sentence
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NP (Noun Phrase)=
DET (Determiner) NOUN/ ADJECTIVE NOUN/ PRONOUN
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PP (Prespositional Phrase)
PREP NP
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VP (Verb phrase)=
VERB (PP)/ VERB NP (PP)
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S (Sentence)=
NP VP
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Verb subcategorisation
Restrictions on structure for each verb
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4 verb structures
Intransitive/ Transitive VERB NP/ Dative VERB NP NP/ Ungrammatical
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Wilson and Garnsey
Simple sentences harder to understand when verb bias mismatches structure
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Recursion
Rules and words are finite- infinite number of sentences
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Hockett's 4 design features for language
Semanticity/ Arbitrariness/ Discreteness/ Generativity (recursion)
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Words and sounds not clearly marked
tongue and mouth always moving- must infer units of language
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Minimal pairs
Two words with different meanings that differ by one phoneme
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Larynx
Deeper in humans than apes or babies
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Two types of morphology
Inflectional morphology- doesn't strongly change syntactic category or meaning/ Derivational morphology- can change syntactic category or meaning
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Gleason- Wug test
Children generalise novel word into plural form
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Marcus et al
U-shaped curve for irregular verbs
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Active/ passive syntax
X loves Y/ Y is loved by X
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Thematic roles
Agent (one doing action)/ Patient (action being done to)
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Pidgin
Simple language for communication where there's no common language
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Creole
Pidgin becomes language for next generation- compexity added
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Nicaraguan sign language
Deaf children in speaking school invent sign language- younger= more complex- innate ability to create language
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Dictionary definition theory (classical)
Doesn't work for most words
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Rosch
Prototype theory- average representation- prototype combinations don't work
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Pragmatics
using language to do things- indirect or polite- literal meaning or implied meaning- autistic ps have trouble
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Rules for conversation
Gricean Maxims- Quantity (informative)/ Quality (truthful)/ Relation (relavent)/ Manner (clear)
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Card 2

Front

Chomsky

Back

Knowledge plus innate constraint

Card 3

Front

2 types of grammatical rules

Back

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Card 4

Front

Grammatical rules

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Words are symbols

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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