Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Psychopathology

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What is developmental psychology?
An approach that aims to understand changes over time in cognitive, emotional and behavioural functioning of an individual.
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When does the largest bio-cognitive development take place in children?
From pre-natal to 3 years of age.
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What is temperament?
It affects how children see the world and interact with others.
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What is the most important influence on development in early childhood?
Family and parenting styles.
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What are the 4 dimensions and 4 parenting styles highlighted by Baumrind?
Warmth, level of expectations, clarity and consistency of rules, and parent-child communication. These produce either authoritative, authoritarian, permissive or neglecting parents.
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What are the 3 stages of how friendships develop?
Reward-cost stage, normative stage, empathetic stage.
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Why is peer influence greater than parental influence for adolescents but not children?
In childhood, children spend more time with their parents than with friends, but the opposite is true for adolescents.
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What is the medical model?
It focuses on what goes wrong in the brain and specific genes as reasons for maladaptive behaviour. It emphasises diagnosis.
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Are negative life events the cause or consequence of biology?
Both. Cicchetti & Rogosch (2001) show that extreme negative events can alter gene expression, as well as affecting mental and physical health.
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What is the behavioural model?
It looks at approaches such as conditioning, habituation and statistical learning. It focuses on frequency or intensity of maladaptive behaviour.
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What is Bandura's social learning theory?
The idea that a person is both the influencer and can be influenced by their environment, and cognitive processes/ self-efficacy affect how this can be learnt behaviours.
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What causes a negative outcome of Erickson's theory of psychosocial development?
If parents are not warm.
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What are the principles of Minuchin's family systems model?
Family members have well differentiated roles, and they have a tendency to keep these even in times of change. Each member meets certain needs.
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What are the three causes of dysfunctional family systems?
Coalition, triangulation and detouring.
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What is the organisational perspective?
Development is hierarchical, it increases in complexity and organisation. Stage-salient issues need to be addressed to allow for progression to the next stage.
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What did Rutter's (1998) study show about continuity of maladaptive behaviour?
Children can outgrow disorders.
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What is the relationship between father's criticism and children's emotional and behavioural problems shown by Psychogiou et al.?
It is bi-directional, criticism is both the cause and the consequence of a child's behaviour.
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What are multifinality and equifinality?
Multifinality is where one problem in parenting can lead to multiple problems in a child. Equfinality is where multiple problems in parenting can lead to one problem in the child.
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When does the largest bio-cognitive development take place in children?

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From pre-natal to 3 years of age.

Card 3

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What is temperament?

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Card 4

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What is the most important influence on development in early childhood?

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Card 5

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What are the 4 dimensions and 4 parenting styles highlighted by Baumrind?

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