Introduction to Animal Behaviour

As hunters, when did interest in behaviour originate and why?
35,000 years ago, as prey
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As farmers, when did interest in behaviour originate and why?
10,000 years ago, to tame for domestic use
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Who was interested in the 'gap' theory of animal behaviour?
Greeks, St Thomas Aquinas (C13) Renes Descartes (C17) to the Present Day.
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Who was interested in the 'continuity' theory of animal behaviour?
Aristotle (BC) David Hume (C18) Charles Darwin (C19) Present Day
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What is flora?
plant life
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What is fauna?
animal life
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When did natural history first gain stature/recognition as a subject?
Early C17
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When did natural history flourish, but still lack what?
C17-19 ; still lacked conceptual framework
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What three books did Charles Darwin write?
Origin of Species, Descent of Man, Expression of Emotion in Man & Animals
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Expression of emotion in man and animals considered what?
that we do not only have language as a form of communication but also as a form of non verbal communication
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Evolutionary theory provides a strong case for what: gap or continuity?
Continuity
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What is a Darwinian Puzzle?
A species characteristic that does not relate to reproductive fitness
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Evolutionary theory essential for development of animal behaviour as what?
A true science
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Prior to Darwin, evolutionary theory had also been considered by whom?
Aristotle (Scala Naturae) and Lamarck (Acquired Characteristics)
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What did Scala Naturae Conceptualise?
The natural scale of evolution from simple creature to more complex organism
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What did Lamarck's Acquired Characteristics Conceptualise?
New traits and skills developed through the course of a lifetime but can be passed on biologically
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What is Epigenetics?
The concept that genes can be turned on/off by environmental influences
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What did Darwin contribute to the already considered evolutionary theory?
He provided a causal mechanism to account for the change: 'why'?
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Prior to settling on studying Theology at Cambridge, Darwin studied what, where?
Medicine at Edinburgh University
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Who did Darwin study Geology under at Cambridge?
Adam Sedgwick
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Who did Darwin study Botany under at Cambridge?
John Henslow
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What was Darwin recruited upon the HMS Beagle as?
Captain's Companion, but self appointed as Ship's Naturalist
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How long was the Voyage of the HMS Beagle?
5 Years
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What book did Darwin read upon the HMS beagle, and what did this lead him to realise?
Lyell's Principles of Geology, outlined evidence that the earth was much older than previously believed
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How many lines of evidence did Darwin Consider?
Five: Homologies, Fossil record, Embryological, Vestigial & Animal Distribution Patterns
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What are homologies?
traits shared by two species, suspected to be as a result of common descent
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What are Vestigial Organs?
Organs that prove no use in modern day but may have done in evolutionary history
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What species did Darwin observe in the Galapagos?
Mockingbird, finch and tortoise: noted small differences in species between islands
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What is adaptive radiation and when did darwin found it?
1844: variations of species that colonise, with differences in diets and available ecological opportunities causing further adaptive radiation
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What kind of characteristics does Adaptive radiation promote?
successful characteristics
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Why did it take so long for Darwin to publish the Origin of Species?
Fear of religious confrontation
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When did Darwin receive his letter from Alfred Russell Wallace?
1858
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Populations tend to remain stable, which implies that...
There is competition for access to scarce resources
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Darwin's ideas were developed devoid of any consideration of what?
Genetics (biological mechanisms)
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What is Neo-Darwinism?
The Marriage of Darwinism & Genetics
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Whose work was instrumental in the development of Neo- Darwinism, and how long after Darwin's death did it come about?
Gregor Mendel: outside of Czechoslovakia, around 28 years after Darwin's death
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Neo Darwinism is also known as what?
Modern Synthesis
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What are Alleles?
different variations of one Gene
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The study of Animal Behaviour in the 21st Century is all derived from What?
Darwin's continuity argument
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Animal Psychology places particular emphasis on what?
Learning via experience
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Ethology gains its knowledge from what practises?
Field based/natural settings, detailed observation and description and emphasis on inherited behaviour patterns
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Ethology places particular emphasis on what?
Inherited behaviour patterns
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What is the most recent area of animal research?
Socio-biology (1970's)
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What kind of AB studies are theory driven, with hypothesis testing in the field?
Socio-biology
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Socio-biology places particular emphasis on what?
Evolution of Social Behaviour
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The concept that birds sing in spring because they have learned it from their parents takes the view of which branch of animal behaviour studies?
Psychology (how) : development
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Psychology comprises of what questions regarding AB?
How (causation & development)
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Ethology comprises of what questions regarding AB?
Why (Function & Evolution)
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Behaviour is the product of complex interactions between...
genes and environment
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As farmers, when did interest in behaviour originate and why?

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10,000 years ago, to tame for domestic use

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Who was interested in the 'gap' theory of animal behaviour?

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Who was interested in the 'continuity' theory of animal behaviour?

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What is flora?

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