Intro to Pharmacology and Patho

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  • Created by: Beckyrose
  • Created on: 18-03-14 11:33
What Drug Name do nurses use?
The Generic Name
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What is Pharmodynamics?
The study of what drugs do and how they do it such as drug receptor interactions
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What is Pharmakinetics?
The way drugs move in the body - Need to know that the drug will get to where its supposed to. The more selective a drug is, the less side effects there are
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How many routes do drugs move through?
1. Channels and Pores, 2. Transport Systems, 3. Direct Membrane Penetration
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What does the route of Channels and Pores do?
Not many drugs use this route because the channels are very small and only very small molecules and fit through
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What does the route Transport Systems do?
It selectively transport certain molecules across membranes into or out of cells
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What does the route of Direct Membrane Penetration do?
Is the most popular mode of transport, the molecules have to be lipd soluble because if water soluble then they wont be able to enter the hydrophobic membranes of cells
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How do drugs move through and enter tissues in the body?
They dissolve through the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes
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What charge must drugs be to be lipid soluble?
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What are some factors that increase drug absorption?
Increased lipid solubility, SA, bloodflow and dissolution (how rapidly tablet dissolves)
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Why is increased lipid solubility a good thing?
it improves drugs ability to get through membranes and caps,
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Is oral administration good?
Its convenient but have to go through membrane of gut to be absorbed, PH of gut can also inactivate some drugs
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What does Enteric Coated mean?
That the tablet has a waxy layer that prevents the drug from gastic juice in the stomach, designed to release drug in intestine so shouldnt be crushed
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How are sustained release drugs made?
Are capsules that have small spheres of the drug w. different coatings that dissolve at different rates
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What is drug distribution influenced by?
Tissue blood flow , the ability of the drug to exit blood vessels and cap structure (how leaky they are will determine how easily the drug can escape into the tissue)
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Why can drugs easily pass to fetuses?
Because they dont have a fully developed blood brain barrier
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What is drug distribution limited by?
The amount of albumin binding, if something really binds onto albumin then there isnt much left circulating in the blood to get to tissues, so have to give big loading dose to saturate the albumin so more drug can reach tissues
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Why can competitive meds be good?
Because they will compete for sites on the albumin which means there will be more free drug in the circulation
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What is Drug Metabolism?
Getting rid of or altering the drug, happens mainly in the liver cells (hepatocytes), the liver makes drugs more water soluble and so its more likely to be gotten rid of by the body as urine
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What is the 'First Pass Effect'?
If meds taken orally it goes 1st to liver, liver cells either makes drugs more soluble for easier excretion, may totally inactivate drug. SO! Drug doses must be high to compensate for liver metabolism
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When do infants develop full metabolising capacity?
At 1 year
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What is Enzyme Induction?
Long term use means the liver increases the number of enzymes associated with the drugs metabolism, means you need more to get the same effects = Metabolic Intolerance
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What is plasma a clinical indicator for?
Whether the appropriate drug dose has been given, you must get a certain plasma drug level for the drug to be effective
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What is Minimum Effective Concentration RT plasma
The plasma drug level that must be reached before a therapeutic effect will occur
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What is a Therapeutic Range?
concentration between min effective concentration and toxicity. The larger the TR the greater the safety there is in using the drug
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What is a Half Life?
The time it takes to reduce the original dose of the drug down to half its original dose - if it has a short half life it means that its metabolized quickly and must be given frequently
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Pharmodynamics?


The study of what drugs do and how they do it such as drug receptor interactions

Card 3


What is Pharmakinetics?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How many routes do drugs move through?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the route of Channels and Pores do?


Preview of the front of card 5
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