1. What is biological aggregation?
- The attraction of organisms to a single location in the upper sunlit layers of the ocean
- The formation of lots of small particles in a small space due to turbulence
- The formation of large particles from smaller particles by activities such as zooplankton grazing
- The disturbance of organisms by particulate matter
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2. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
- The deep oceans are poorly supplied with oxygen by the advection of deep water masses that were formed in the polar regions.
- Variations in temperature affect the overall constancy of composition of seawater with respect to major constituents.
- The majority of the dissolved constituents participate in repeated cycles of biological activity that removes elements from solution and returns them to solution many times before they end up in the sediment
- Elements classified as recycled have concentration profiles resembling those of scavenged elements.
3. Which constituent DOES NOT display bio-limiting behaviour in temperate waters during the summer
- Dissolved inorganic carbon dioxide
4. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
- At depths where light to too low, respiration dominates and changes in the concentration of dissolved nutrients is dominated by an increase in their concentration.
- An increase in the turbidity (presence of particles)of seawater, reduces the depth to which sunlight can penetrate
- Measuring chlorophyll concentrations is used to track zooplankton
- Net nutrient removal is seen in the sunlit surface waters where the rate of photosynthesis exceeds the rate of respiration.
5. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
- A constituent with an oceanic residence time of 100 years will be uniformly mixed throughout the oceans
- The major ions in seawater have a residence time longer than average ocean mixing time.
- The residence time of an element in seawater can be estimated by dividing its mass in the ocean by its annual input from rivers.
- That the chemical composition of the oceans is in steady state means that the rate of addition of dissolved constituents to seawater is balanced by their rate of removal, so that their concentrations do not change significantly with time.