International relations

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What was the Grand alliance 1941?
Marriage of convenience between the communists (USSR) + capitalists (USA etc.) only united by a common enemy (Hitler)
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How did America’s production of the atomic bomb (July 1945) affect the Grand alliance?
Change in Truman + his attitude as he believed it was the master card. Stalin planned to protect USSR with a buffer zone (communist area in EE between USSR + capitalist West)
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What was the war of words?
In March 1946 Churchill criticised Eastern Europe as controlled by Moscow and starts the war of words. Stalin responded by calling Churchill a “warmonger” + compares him to “hitler and his friends.”
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Why did Stalin build the “Iron Curtain”?
As he wanted to set up a buffer zone of countries in EE to protect the USSR against another invasion by Germany and wanted to prevent spread of western influence + stop refugees leaving the east for Western Europe.
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What was included in the Long telegram (American ambassador kennan in Moscow to Truman)?
Secret report saying- Stalin has given a speech calling for the destruction of capitalism, no peace with the USSR while opposed to capitalism, USSR’s building military power.
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What was included in the Novikov’s telegram 1946 from America?
It said that: America wanted to dominate the world, Following Roosvelt’s death the American government was no longer interested in working with the USSR, the American public was being prepared for war with the USSR.
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What was the Marshall plan?
$13 billion were committed to rebuild the devastated economies of Europe, to discourage communism and also to help the American economy as in order to qualify for the money the European countries had to agree to trade freely with America.
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What and when was the Paris conference?
European countries met to discuss Marshall aid (Most of whom accepted-16 countries including Britain and France). Russian delegates walked out of the conference and accused America of dividing europe into 2 'camps'.
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What did the USSR say about the Marshall Aid?
They said that the marshall Aid was the first step in forging a military alliance before waging war on the soviet union. Stalin even wanted all eastern european countries under his sphere of influence not to accept America's help.
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Why was the Brain Drain such a problem for Khrushchev?
Well-educated defectors were needed to modernise the agriculture and industry. Difficult for Stalin to prove that the Soviet system was better than the West.
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What was a satellite state?
A country that is officially independent but is actually controlled by another country –between 1947 and 1949 the USSR extended its influence over EE i.e.Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Baltic states of Estonia Latvia + Lithuania).
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Why did Stalin extend his control over EE (Eastern Europe)?
As Stalin believed America was simply buying over EE as the nations who accepted Marshall Aid (Referred to as “dollar imperialism”) would effectively become America’s allies.
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What did Stalin see as the first step towards permanently dividing Germany?
France, Britain + America set up a new German constitution, introduce a new German currency (Deutschmark –official currency of Trizonia) without consulting Stalin.
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Why was Stalin opposed to the changes made in Trizonia?
As he was reluctant to allow America to have even more influence over Germany + didn’t want American troops to remain stationed in Germany + realised that Germany’s most valuable economic resources in the West would be used against the USSR in a war.
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Why did Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin in June 1948-49?
So that the new government based in Berlin couldn’t control its territory in Western Germany + prove to the West that a divided Germany would not work on a practical level to prevent a separate state in Western Germany.
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How did Truman respond to the Berlin Blockade?
With the Berlin airlift – Supplies were transported to Western Berlin by Allied planes around the clock. 70 large cargo planes + 600-700 tons of food + supplies, 170,000 tons a day by January 1949.
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Why didn’t the Blockade work?
Truman’s peaceful response made Stalin’s blockade look aggressive (propaganda success for US, failure for the USSR). Due to the airlift Stalin ended it May 1949 + West Germany (Federal Republic) was created as an independent state Sept1949. Oct 1949
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What did Western European nations establish as a result of the Berlin Blockade (first military confrontation of the Cold War)?
NATO (April 1949)-establish alliance between US + many countries of Western Europe. Agreed that if any NATO country came under attack then all NATO members would come to their defence. Significance – Military alliance with specific aim of defending t
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What was the USSR’s response to creation of NATO (Communist Equivalent)?
Warsaw Pact (“Pact of Mutual Assistance and Unified command) – USSR, Poland, Hungary, CZ, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania + East Germany. An attempt to protect the USSR by drawing EE countries even closer together.
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What were the three important features of the Warsaw Pact?
Created joint command of armed forced of alliance, set up political Committee to co-ordinate foreign policies of members + bound members to come to the aid of others, should anyone be the victim of foreign aggression similarly to NATO.
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What was the significance of the Warsaw Pact?
Increased influence of the USSR in EE + led to more Soviet troops stationed there. Powerful political tool for the USSR to hold sway over allies + harness powers of combined military. Forces outnumbered those of the West + financially ruinous for USS
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What was the arms race?
Continuing commitment to maintaining large army, navy, air force + development of nuclear weapons. 1945 –USA 1st atomic bomb. 1949 –USSR developed/tested nuclear weapons. 1953 –Both nations had hydrogen bomb capability.Continuing commitment to mainta
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What was the significance of the arms race?
Prevented war in Europe –USSR had 3 mill soldiers, could have easily invaded Western Germany but didn’t in case of nuclear retaliation from US. i.e.1 atomic bomb could destroy an entire city + population in seconds. USSR had seen effects of American
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Stalin claimed that he’d liberated Hungary from Nazis but list 6 aspects of Cominform’s equally oppressive regime on Hungary 1949?
Hungarian land redistributed to other EEcountries. Coal, oil + wheat shipped to SU while Hungarian citizens deprived of their own food, Non-communist political parties abolished, Cominform’s reign of terror executing popular leader + supporters. MR
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Who was Hungary’s leader from 1949-56?
Stalin’s “best pupil” Rakosi (‘bald butcher’) dealt with enemies using salami tactics (dealing with opponents slice by slice). Imprisoned 387,000 + killed over 2000.
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Why was the death of Stalin in 1953 a key turning point in the Cold War?
Stalin’s style of government known as “Stalinism” was inordinately oppressive. Believed to be responsible for around 20 mill deaths. Nikita Khrushchev gave the “Secret Speech” 1956 promising the end to Stalinism throughout the entire Soviet sphere of
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Why did Nagy propose a programme of reform?
Hungarian public dissatisfied with Soviet rule, students rioted + attacked soviet troops with petrol bombs + grenades following the secret speech 1956. Police lost control of the situation + demonstrations escalated. Khrushchev agreed to put in place
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Why did the reforms of Imre Nagy effectively end Hungary’s alliance with the USSR?
Khrushchev realised if Hungary was allowed to leave the Warsaw pact then other EE countries might follow their lead + had access to info reporting discontent with communism in EE reinforcing his idea that more freedom = end to SU dominance in EE.
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How did Khrushchev respond to Nagy’s reforms?
With a show of force – 200,000 USSR troops were sent to Hungary with the mission to crush the government Nov 1956. 2 weeks of fighting=20,000 hungarians killed + 200,000 escaped to Austria.
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What happened to Nagy after the Hungarian government was defeated?
Nagy sought protection within the Yugoslavian embassy + although the Yugoslavian ambassador agreed that Nagy was free to leave Hungary but as soon as he left the embassy he was arrested, found guilty of treason he was hanged June 1958 “a lesson to th
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What was the international reaction to the Hungarian revolution?
Encouraged uprising but didn’t offer any military help. Offered $20 mill in food + medical aid to Nagy’s government + the American president openly praised the bravery of the Hungarians. Melbourne Olympic Games boycotted by Spain, the Netherlands + S
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How did the newly appointed Hungarian leader Janos Kadar reassert Soviet control?
He published a 15 point programme including: Re-establishing communist control in Hungary, Using Hungarian troops to stop attacks on Soviet forces, Remaining part of the Warsaw pact + Negotiating the withdrawal of the Soviet troops once the crisis is
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What was Nagy’s programme of reform?
Hungary should leave the Warsaw pact and become neutral, Communist government in Hungary should end, Hungary should ask UN for protection from SU + become a western style democracy with free elections.
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What were the results of the uprising?
Khrushchev was able to keep control of Hungary + a new Soviet backed leader, kadar (until 1965), was installed but 200,000 Hungarians escaped to Austria. Success for Khrushcheb
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What was the STAASI (Staatsichereit)?
Employed 850,000 secret police (operated outside the law) to monitor the population closely.122km of paper: 46.5km microfiche, 360,000 photographs, 600,000 negatives, 24,000 slides, 3,850 videos, 730 films & 99, 500 sound recordings on 6,000,000 peop
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Why did Khrushchev challenge Eisenhower?
The ‘brain drain’ and defectors created a propaganda disaster because it proved that people preferred the Capitalist West to the Communist East. He planned to prevent this and humiliate the USA.
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What were the advantages of living in the West?
Cheap rent, electricity, gas, telephone charges and (reliable) Public transport.
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Why did Khrushchev challenge Eisenhower?
The ‘brain drain’ and defectors created a propaganda disaster because it proved that people preferred the Capitalist West to the Communist East. He planned to prevent this and humiliate the USA.
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What was Eisenhower’s Response?
Didn’t want to lose Berlin or start a war. Agreed to hold an international meeting to discuss Berlin’s future – Khrushchev dropped the ultimatum.
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How did Kennedy prepare for war?
Additional $3.2 billion of defence spending extra $207 million on nuclear fallout shelters.
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Why did Kennedy’s refusal to retreat cause the Soviet leader to back down?
In 1961 the USA had almost 20 times more nuclear weapons which could reach further than Soviet weapons that couldn’t reach the USA.
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When was the first two of the four summits between America and Russian leaders?
Summer 1959 –Khrushchev + Eisenhower met in Geneva and were unable to agree on berlin’s future. 26-27 September 1959 Camp David Summit (E’s summer retreat) –Disagreed again.
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What happened in the third summit (Paris summit) of May 1960?
Disaster as the USSR shot down a U2 spy plane. Eisenhower lied (weather reconnaissance) and refused to apologise .Evidence was found. The pilot(Gary Powers) was captured. Khrushchev stormed out of the summit.
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What happened in the fourth summit (Vienna Conference) June 1961?
Khrushchev told Kennedy that he was considering giving East Germany control of all communication links between West Germany & West Berlin. This would break the wartime agreements.
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What happened in the cuban revolution?
The Cuban revolution overthrew Cuba's pro-American government & set up a new regime led by Fidel Castro (wanted greater independence from the US) which took over all American property in Cuba (1959)
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What happened in the bay of pigs incident?
The US backed force invaded the Bay of Pigs and was defeated in two days as the Cuban people fought to support the government of Castro
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Why did the American president believe that Cuba’s friendship was so important?
As Cuba was only 145km (90 miles) away + part of the US sphere of influence
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How did the USA respond to the Cuban revolution?
America banned the import of Cuban sugar – this threatened to bankrupt the Cuban economy
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What were the Pros and Cons of the Diplomatic pressures?
Pro: avoid conflict. Cons: If US forced to back down = sign of weakness
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How did the US president go about the Bay of Pigs incident?
About 1500 Cuban exiles based in Florida had some backing from the USA to invade Cuba and replace Cuba’s communist government and replace it with a capitalist pro-American government, were trained, equipped & received money from the CIA.
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Who were the hawks and doves?
The hawks = aggressive policy (some America generals believed that nuclear war was inevitable). Doves = caution, diplomatic strategies for best chance of peace
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What were the pros and cons of doing nothing?
Pros: Would destroy missiles before ready to use. Cons: Destruction of all sites not guaranteed = counterattack if not all destroyed. Soviet soldiers killed = Soviet retaliation. Immoral
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What were the pros and cons of Invasion?
Pros: Would get rid of missiles & Castro, American forces already trained and ready. Cons: Soviet response either within soviet sphere of influence or to protect Cuba.
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What were the Pros and Cons of the Blockade?
Pros: Put the burden of what to do next on Khrushchev. USA had a strong navy and different options if it didn’t work. It would show that the USA were serious. Cons: Direct act of war. Didn’t get rid of the missiles. USSR retaliate with another Berlin
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How did the US president go about the Bay of Pigs incident?
.About 1500 Cuban exiles based in Florida had some backing from the USA to invade Cuba and replace Cuba’s communist government and replace it with a capitalist pro-American government, were trained, equipped & received money from the CIA.
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What was Khrushchev’s plan?
25th September 1962 - Khrushchev sent 114 Soviet ships carrying a secret cargo (warheads + long range missiles to be used to construct nuclear bases on Cuba) to Cuba. By mid-October American spy planes had discovered this,Kennedy informed public22Oct
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Who were the hawks and doves?
The hawks = aggressive policy (some America generals believed that nuclear war was inevitable). Doves = caution, diplomatic strategies for best chance of peace
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What are the similarities between Czechoslovakia and Hungary?
They were both satellite states, had struggling economies, a decline in living standards and were run by the secret police which brutally crushed opposition.
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What made which communist party leader very unpopular?
Political repression + economic problems made Antonin Novotny (leader in 1957) unpopular
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Why did Novotny experience widespread opposition?
As when he did introduce change, it was slow and lesser to other soviet satellite states. Also, CZ began to experience economic stagnation which added to the country’s climate of disappointment. Calls for greater freedom.
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Who challenged Novotny’s leaderships?
Alexander Dubcek, leader of Slovakian Communist Party who invited Leonid Brezhnev (leader of USSR) to visit Prague. Following the visit Dubcek became the communist party leader on 5th January 1968 and thus the most powerful man in Czechoslovakia.
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Why was Dubcek a natural choice to lead Czechoslovakia?
As he was a committed communist who was on friendly terms with Leonid Brezhnev who took over the as leader of the USSR after the fall of Khrushchev in 1964?
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What did Dubcek want?
To get rid of the most repressive aspect of communist rule, reform the economy, allow more cultural freedom & hoped that this would revitalise CZ politics & the social life – popular form of communism (‘socialism with a human face’).
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What was the Prague Spring?
The phrase used to describe the liberal changes introduced by Dubcek from April 1968.
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What was Dubcek’s aim?
To allow ‘the widest possible democracy in the social and political life of Czechoslovakia’
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Who welcomed and took full advantage of the reforms?
Students, intellectuals, workers and younger members of the Czech communist party. Artists and writers i.e. Milan Kundra and Vaclav Havel wrote books, plays & essays critical of Soviet style Communism.
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Why did the Prague Spring make things very difficult for Brezhnev?
He regarded Dubcek as a friend whom also hadn’t made an attempt to leave the Warsaw Pact or damage the USSR, but secret Soviet intelligence reports suggest that Dubcek’s reforms would lead to a weakening of Soviet control of Czechoslovakia and in the
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By late August 1968 Brezhnev had had enough and ordered a full scale invasion of the Czechoslovakia to overthrow Dubcek. Describe the lead up to this.
From April to July 1968 Brezhnev was in constant contact with Dubcek and attempted to persuade him that the reforms had gone too far, but Dubcek didn’t take the hint & took no action to control political opposition in CZ.
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What was the Brezhnev doctrine?
According to the doctrine the USSR had the right to invade any country in Eastern Europe whose actions appeared to threaten the security of the whole of the Eastern Bloc.
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What happened on October 1968?
All reforms reversed & temporary Soviet military occupation announced. Dubcek arrested & taken to Moscow where Brezhnev tearfully told him he had betrayed socialism.
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What was the Moscow Protocol?
Dubcek forced to sign it to commit the Czech government to ‘protect socialism’ by reintroducing censorship + removing political opposition. Gradually, all Czech leaders were purged + new leader, Gustav Husak, re-established a strong communist state.
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What was America’s reaction?
Publicly condemned the invasion but didn’t offer military support.
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How did Brezhnev know that America wouldn’t offer any military support?
As they had an unspoken deal that the USA wouldn’t intervene in Czechoslovakia as long as the USSR didn’t intervene in Vietnam.
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What was the reaction of Western Europe?
Condemned invasion but provided no military support. Italian + French communist parties outraged & formally declared themselves independent of Soviet Communist Party.
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What were the consequences of Western Europe’s reaction to the invasion by the USSR?
Rival forms of European Communism – Soviet communism in the East and Euro communism in the West. This showed that Soviet communism had lost authority and support as a result of the invasio
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What was the Eastern European reaction?
Discontent in EE. Yugoslavian and Romanian governments condemned invasion & distanced themselves from the USSR, then formed alliances with China (world’s other major communist power) further dividing the communist world.
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What was Detente?
Superpower leaders tried to ease the tensions in late 1960s & 70s.
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What was the Outer Space Treaty?
1967-stopped the arms race spreading to outer space - pledged that no nuclear weapons would be placed in space by either superpower
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What was the 1968 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty?
1968 - Agreed no superpower would supply or help other states develop nuclear weapons – stopped superpower conflict engulfing rest of the world.
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What type of treaty was SALT 1 of 1972?
Anti-ballistic missile treaty - imposed limits on the nuclear capability of superpowers.
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What did both powers agree on in SALT 1?
No further production of strategic ballistic missiles. Submarines carrying nuclear weapons only introduced when stocks of ICBMs became obsolete.
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What did the Helsinki 1975 conference do?
Stabilised situation in Europe by agreeing greater co-operation between the superpowers & European allies in terms of trade/fighting international terrorism.
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Why were the Helsinki agreement/accords a high point of détente?
Agreed on Human rights (freedom of speech, to move from 1 country to another), security + co-operation. USSR accepted existence of West Germany.
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Why was the significance of Helsinki short lived?
As President Carter complained about Soviet violations of the 1975 Helsinki agreements and criticised the USSR’s poor record on freedom of speech + movement.
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What were the follow-up meetings after Helsinki + What happened in the Apollo-Soyuz mission?
Belgrade (1977-1978), Madrid (1980-83) & Ottawa (1985). 3 US astronauts and 2 Soviet cosmonauts shook hands – seemed that relations were improving-propoganda
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What was the Kabul revolution?
In April 1978 the Afghan royal family was overthrown & replaced with Mohammed Taraki’s new government, determined ‘to build socialism in Afghanistan’.
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What plunged Afghanistan into a civil war?
Taraki unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate the head of the army (Hafizullah Amin) as he believed Amin was a threat to his position as head of the new government.
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Why was the war that followed the Soviet invasion a disaster?
Lasted 10 years, around 1.5 mill died including 15,000 soviet soldiers.
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What happened in the boycott of Moscow Olympics?
Carter led 60 countries (incl. China, Malawi, Germany, Zaire) to boycott the games in protest of Afghanistan. US government set up alternative Olympics (Olympic boycott games) in Philadelph
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What did the USSR do in retaliation for the 1980 boycott?
USSR + 14 communist countries refused to go to the 1984 Olympics in LA & held the Friendship games as a communist alternative.
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How did Reagan want to challenge communism?
Indicated he would spend $trillion on defence + put forward “zero option” (superpowers dismantle/remove nuclear weapons from Europe).
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What and where was the Evil Empire speech of 1983?
Gave speech at National association of Evangelicals that Cold war = fight between good + evil
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What was SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative) proposed March 1983?
“Nuclear Umbrella” – launch army of satellites with lasers that intercept Soviet missiles in space + destroy them before they hit USA. Broke Outer Space treaty. SDIO set up 1984.
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What was SDI?
“Nuclear Umbrella” – launch army of satellites with lasers that intercept Soviet missiles in space + destroy them before they hit USA. Broke Outer Space treaty. SDIO set up 1984.
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What was the soviet response to SDI?
US won race to moon 1969. Soviet economy too poor to produce space based weapons + behind America in Computer tech (suspicious)
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Who was Gorbachev and how did he handle the Chernobyl crisis of April 1986?
Soviet leader 1985-1991. Authorised cover story denying release of dangerous radiation from the crisis (reactor went critical, exploded). Western media/governments pressured him to tell the trut
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What problems did Gorbachev recognise Russia faced?
Soviet economy less effective than the USAs. USA = excellent standard of living whilst USSR had food shortages + Russian people had lost faith in the communist party
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What two policies did Gorbachev want Eastern Europe to enjoy?
PERESTROIKA-restructuring Soviet (command) economy & GLASNOST (openness) - relaxation of press censorship, KGB powers restricted + criticism of government allowed.
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Why was the Soviet Union Bankrupt?
Supported Communist regimes through COMECON. Cuban joined in 1977 & depended almost totally on Soviet aid, Space race, and military expenditure, Afghan war. Prices controlled/subsidised.
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What existed as a result of the many economic problems?
‘Black market’ in western goods + currency. Tourists offered roubles at 3 or 5 times the official exchange rate.
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What did Gorbachev know he would have to do in order for the USSR to survive?
He had reduce expenditure on arms and space technology, but needed foreign aid + new tech to compete by making agreements
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What were the strengths and weaknesses of the USA?
Booming economy, Excellent computer/space tech. Good military, International rep as “leaders of free world” + NATO allies but had fewer nuclear weapons than USSR.
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What were the strengths and weaknesses of the USSR?
Had Warsaw pact allies + more nuclear weapons than USA but had failing economy, committed to expensive afghan war, old fashioned tech, ruined rep due to Chernobyl crisis.
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What were the aims if the superpowers in the Geneva summit in November 1985?
To persuade Gorb that he sincerely desired peace between the superpowers. Gorb was hoping to persuade Reagan to drop SDI
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What was the significance of the Geneva meeting?
The two leaders were able to talk face to face and develop a personal relationship but no formal agreement was reached.
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When, where and what was the significance of the second meeting?
Reykjavik in Oct 1986. Gorbachev refused to scrap ballistic missiles as Reagan refused to drop SDI.
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When & where was the third meeting?
Washington Dec 1987
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What was the INF treaty?
INF treaty Eliminated all nuclear missile & conventional ground based cruise missiles within range of 500-5500 km. Significant-1st treaty to reduce no. of missiles that superpowers possessed, went further than SALT I.
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What was the Moscow (4th summit) meeting and why was it significant?
May-June 1988. Finalised INF treaty as it had now been agreed by US senate. Joint statement to show friendship.
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What happened in the New York Summit 1988?
Reagan, Gorb + Bush (Pres-elect). Gorb wanted to speed up arms reduction + complete START treaty before Bush became pres. Negotiations slowed as Bush + advisors less trusting of Gorb than Reagan.
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What happened in the Malta summit 1989?
Bush + Gorbachev. Gorb assured Bush he’d never start a ‘hot war’ against US. Observer pointed out If Yalta was start then Malta was the end of the cold war. Announced end of Cold War in 1989.
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What happened in the Washington DC summit 1990?
Bush + Gorb discussed START and produced START (Treaty for reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive arms) signed 31 july 1991. Reduced 25-35% of all strategic warheads. US + USSR set ceiling of 1600 strategic nuclear delivery aircraft + 6000 w
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What is the order of summits?
Geneva Nov 1985, Rejkjavik Oct 1986, Washington Dec 1987, Moscow May-June 1988, New York
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When did Gorbachev announce that ideology should play a smaller role in Soviet foreign policy and what did he mean by it?
Dec 1988 – USSR would no longer favour trade with communist states over those which were not communist but capitalist.
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What was the Sinatra Doctrine and why did Gorbachev withdraw troops?
Allowed countries to go their own way + wouldn’t interfere in the politics of Warsaw pact countries + to save money.
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What happened in Germany representing the break-up of the Eastern Bloc?
East Germans leave from West Germany via Hungary. Communist party of East Germany declares free elections. Berlin wall falls in Oct 1990 elections.
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What happened in the Czech Republic/Slovakia representing the break-up of the Eastern Bloc?
Popular protests lead to the overthrow of Communist rule in the “Velvet” revolution of Nov 1989.
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What happened in Poland representing the break-up of the Eastern Bloc?
Communist government defeated in free elections held in Sept 1989.
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What happened in Hungary representing the break-up of the Eastern Bloc?
The communist government promises a new democratic constitution summer 1989 + first free elections Oct 1989.
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When was the fall of the Berlin Wall?
12th Nov 1989. First step towards the reunification of Germany.
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What did a group of government officials (gang of eight) do on 19th August 1991?
Organised a coup which removed Gorbachev from power. Initially successful as Gorb away from the capital was prevented from returning. Yeltsin 3 day government. Gorb returned 21st aug.
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When did the Cold war end?
Bush said it was over in malta but it was in Dec 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union that ended superpower conflict.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How did America’s production of the atomic bomb (July 1945) affect the Grand alliance?

Back

Change in Truman + his attitude as he believed it was the master card. Stalin planned to protect USSR with a buffer zone (communist area in EE between USSR + capitalist West)

Card 3

Front

What was the war of words?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did Stalin build the “Iron Curtain”?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was included in the Long telegram (American ambassador kennan in Moscow to Truman)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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