International Relations 1918-39

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  • Created by: BillsJ
  • Created on: 15-11-14 19:58
Which year was the Treaty of Versailles?
1919
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Who represented America at Versailles?
Woodrow Wilson
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Who represented Britain at Versailles?
David Lloyd-George
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Who represented France at Versailles?
Georges Clemenceau
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What were Wilson's 4 main demands at Versailles?
League of nations, self-determination, democracy and no secret treaties
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What were Lloyd-George's 5 main demands at Versailles?
Reduce German navy, to keep Germany strong enough to trade, to charge reparations (but not crippling), for Germany to not have colonies and for Germany to take the blame for WWI
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What were Clemenceau's 5 main demands at Versailles?
Annihalation of German military, demilitarisation of the Rhineland, crippling reparations, Alsace-Lorraine to be returned to France and to prevent Anschluss
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What was Germany's army limited to?
100,000 men
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What was Germany's airforce limited to?
0 planes
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What was Germany's navy limited to?
0 submarines and 6 battleships
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Could Germany conscript after Versailles?
No
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Which area was demilitarised?
The Rhineland
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Which area was returned to France?
Alsace-Lorraine
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What divided East Prussia from Germany?
The Polish Corridor
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What area was given to the League of Nations, and for how long?
The Saarland for 15 years
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What happened to Germany's colonies?
It lost them
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Which countries did Eupen and Posen go to?
Eupen to Belgium and Posen to Poland
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What happened to Danzig?
It became free
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What was the amount of reparations that the Germans were charged?
£6.6 billion
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What was it about the amount of money that the Germans didn't like, in regards to when it was decided?
At Versailles it was a 'blank cheque' i.e. the Germans had no idea what they were signing up to
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What establishment was set up in conjunction with Wilson's demands?
The League of Nations
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Which cause meant that Germany took the blame for WWI? What was its number?
The War Guilt Clause, Clause 231
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What was Germany banned from doing concerning Austria?
It was banned from Anschluss
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Who gained the most out of Versailles?
Britain
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Was this good or bad?
Bad, because it meant that Germany was still annoyed, but was still powerful enough to act on its grievances
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What was the name of the Treaty with Austria, and what year was it signed?
The Treaty of St Germain in 1919
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What was the name of the Treaty with Bulgaria, and what year was it signed?
The Treaty of Neuilly in 1919
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What was the name of the Treaty with Hungary, and what year was it signed?
The Treaty of Trianon in 1920
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What was the name of the Treaty with Turkey, and what year was it signed?
The Treaty of Sevres in 1920
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What was the first course of action that the League would undertake if one member became aggressive to another?
Moral condemnation
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What was the second course of action?
Economic sanctions
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What was the third course of action?
Military action
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Did the League ever use the third option?
No
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Which countries were invited to join the League of Nations?
All, apart from those who fought the Allies and Russia
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Why did America never join?
Congress didn't allow it
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Who were the members of the Council of the League of Nations?
Britain, France, Italy and Japan
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When did Britain join and leave the League of Nations?
It joined in 1919 and left in 1945
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When did France join and leave the League of Nations?
It joined in 1919 and left in 1945
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When did Italy join and leave the League of Nations?
It joined in 1919 and left in 1937
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When did Japan join and leave the League of Nations?
It joined in 1919 and left in 1933
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When did Germany join and leave the League of Nations?
It joined in 1926 and left in 1933
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When did the USSR join and leave the League of Nations?
It joined in 1934 and left in 1939
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What was the Council in the League of Nations?
It was a smaller group of countries that met 5 times a year in case of emergency. It consisted of Britain, France, Italy and Japan, who each had a veto. It decided what the League did in response to an attack.
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What was the Assembly in the League of Nations?
It was the League's parliament where all the discussions took place. The outcome would be passed on to the Council, as it only met once a year. All decisions had to be unanimous
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What was the Permanent Court of International Justice in the League of Nations?
It was the League's court that made rulings on the law. However, it could not enforce these rulings.
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What was the Secretariat in the League of Nations?
It was the League's civil service i.e. it recorded all the events of the League
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What was the International Labour Organisation in the League of Nations?
It was the League's representative for the workers, and it's aim was to improve the conditions of workers across the world
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What was the Mandates Commission in the League of Nations?
It made sure that Britain and France acted in the interest of the colonies that it had taken from Germany
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What was the Refugees Commission in the League of Nations?
It tried to help refugees of WWI return to their homes
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What was the Slavery Commission in the League of Nations?
It worked to abolish slavery
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What was the Health Committee in the League of Nations?
It aimed to deal with dangerous diseases and educate people about sanitation and health
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What was good about the membership of the League?
Everyone was invited (apart from Germany and the USSR) so everyone was represented, and people complied because it was voluntary
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What was bad about the membership of the League?
Key powers (i.e. Germany and Russia) were missing, and people left when they wanted to because it was voluntary
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What was good about the power of the internal bodies of the League?
Responsibility was spread out so small organisations could do their jobs well; each body could focus completely on their job; there was no opposition in the colonies due to the Mandates Commission; they all have humanitarian objectives
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What was bad about the power of the internal bodies of the League?
The Council's veto created an imbalance and some of the aims were over-ambitious
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What was good about how each body made decisions in the League?
The Permanent Court of International Justice could help the decision making; each country could agree or disagree; no disputes were created due to all the decisions being unanimous and there was a structure
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What was bad about how each body made decisions in the League?
The Assembly was too big to make quick decisions; the Council's veto created an imbalance and there is an assumption that the Council will never be wrong
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What was good about how the League enforced its decisions?
The League enforced its decisions peacefully, so no one died in unnecessary wars
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What was bad about how the League enforced its decisions?
Countries could ally against the League
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What year was the Corfu Incident?
1923
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Which general of which nationality was shot on which border in the Corfu crisis?
General Tellini, and Italian general, was shot on the Greek-Albanian border
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Which leader reacted, and what did he do?
Mussolini, the Italian president, bombed Corfu, invaded it, and then charged 50 million lire from Greece to have it back
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What was the Greek response?
They pleaded to the League of Nations
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What did the League do in response to the Greek pleas?
They hesitated, and then morally condemned Mussolini. When that didn't work, they appeased him by telling the Greeks to pay the money
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What were the 5 consequences of Corfu?
It showed the League to be weak; it set a future precedent; it showed the League to be unable to control its Council; it showed that Britain and France were not committed to collective security and it made Mussolini more powerful.
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What did the Washington Conference entail and when was it signed?
It limited the size of navies and stopped naval races. For every 5 British ships, the USA could have 5, Japan 3, Italy 1.67 and France 1.67. It was signed in 1920
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What were the consequences of the Washington Conference?
It showed that the key powers could negotiate, but not through the League. It did not end global suspicion however, and it showed that the League was not needed for global treaties.
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What did the Locarno Pact entail and when was it signed?
It sealed Germany's western borders and prevented invasion. It was signed in 1925
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What were the consequences of the Locarno Pact?
It meant that France could not invade Germany and that the war had ended. However it did not protect the eastern border of Germany
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What did the Kellog-Briand Pact entail and when was it signed?
Its aim was to prevent war globally, and was signed in 1928
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What were the consequences of the Kellog-Briand Pact?
It partially stopped wars and proved that the LEague could actually do something. However it was more of a statement of intent that anything else
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Name three League successes before 1926.
Bulgaria and Greece; Silesia; the Aaland Islands; Teschen and Iraq
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Name three League failures before 1926, excluding Corfu
Fiume; Vilna; the Russo-Polish War and the invasion of the Ruhr
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When was the Wall Street Crash?
1929
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What were the consequences of the Wall Street Crash on America?
Shares lost their value; debts could not be repaid; taxes had to be put on imports; taxes were put on their exports; trading stopped; there was unemployment; 1/4 of America's banks collapsed
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What were the consequences of the Wall Street Crash on Germany?
The same as America but a lot worse; mass unemployment; the rise of Hitler
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What were the consequences of the Wall Street Crash on Britain?
The same as both America and Germany, only Britain didn't fall to the extremist protesters
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How did the Wall Street Crash alter international relations?
It brought power to far right leaders; tariffs were placed on imports; countries tried to expand empires; countries became more interested in themselves than others and the Manchurian Crisis happened
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When was the Manchurian Crisis?
1931
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Why did the Depression hit Japan more than most?
Japan relied on imports and exports, as it was too small and its population was too big to be self-sufficient. The tariffs therefore almost destroyed them, and they had to invade China
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What was the Manchurian Crisis?
The Manchurian Crisis was when Japan invaded Manchuria in order to expand its land
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What was Japan's excuse for invading Manchuria?
They owned the South Manchurian Railway, and claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged it.
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What did the League do in response?
It delayed and then sent a commission to assess the situation
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What was the Commission called?
The Lytton Commission
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What did the Lytton Commission declare, and how did Japan react?
It declared Japan guilty, and in return Japan left the League.
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What were the League's excuses for not preventing the Manchurian Crisis?
Japan was far away; the USA and USSR would not help; Japan was a 'special case'; China was anarchic at the time and Japan did need the food and space
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What was the impact of the Manchurian Crisis?
It showed the weakness of the League - it would not fight a member far from Europe; it set a precedent for Mussolini and Hitler; it showed how Japan could ignore and leave the League; it showed the significance of the absence of the USA & USSR
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When was the Abyssinian Crisis?
1935
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Why did Italy invade Abyssinia?
Italy's empire was insignificant; they thought that Ethiopia would be easy to take due to racism; the Italian population was growing, so more food and space was needed and France and Britain both gave their consent
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What was the name of the border Mussolini used to demand Abyssinia?
Wal-Wal
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What pact was signed at this time, between which countries, and what did it mean?
The Stresa Pact was signed between Britain, France and Italy. It meant that they all hated Germany, but also meant that Britain and France ignored Abyssinia
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What did the League do in response to Italy invading?
It placed economic sanctions on Italy - it banned arms sales, loans, import & exports etc. These were delayed for two months however, and the Suez canal was not shut
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What was the Hoare-Laval Pact?
It was a secret plan by the British and French foreign ministers, Hoare and Laval, to give 2/3rds of Abyssinia to Mussolini. But they were found out and sacked.
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Which treaty was signed by Mussolini after he took over Abyssinia?
The Rome-Berlin Axis with Germany
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What were the consequences of the Abyssinian Crisis?
It was the final nail in the coffin for the League; Hitler took over the Rhineland using the distraction; Mussolini became more powerful and Britain and France showed that they were not interested in the League
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What were Hitler's main foreign policies?
To destroy the Treaty of Versailles; to expand and to destroy communism
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What was Hitler's first move in 1933?
To rearm Germany
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What Conference did Hitler make his rearmament plans at, and what did he propose?
The Disarmament Conference, in which he said that disarmament had not happened yet, and therefore he would not rearm if everyone else disarmed in the next 5 years
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What agreement did Hitler sign in 1934, what did it entail, who did he sign it with and what were its consequences?
The 10 year non-aggression pact with Poland ensured that Poland was not going to be invaded by Hitler. It therefore pleased Britain, as they saw it as proof of Hitler being peaceful
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What year was the failed Anschluss, and who caused it to fail?
1934, caused to fail by Mussolini
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When was the Anglo-German naval agreement? (no points for guessing who signed it)
1935
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What were the terms of the Anglo-German naval agreement?
Germany could have a navy 35% of the size of the British one, but that did not include submarines.
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What were the consequences of the Anglo-German naval agreement?
German rearmament was basically authorised; the Stresa Pact was broken as Britain had acted alone and it broke up the Treaty of Versailles
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What year was the Re-militarisation of the Rhineland?
1936
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What was the re-militarisation of the Rhineland?
When Hitler entered the Rhineland and took it over, posting guards there
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What were the consequences of the re-militarisation of the Rhineland?
The Treaty of Versailles had been reset by Hitler; Hitler now had more confidence; the League was now dead; the Nazis became more powerful; the Rome-Berlin Axis; the building of the Maginot Line and the rearmament of the British
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When was the Anschluss with Austria?
1938
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What were Hitler's reasons for Anschluss?
Hitler was Austrian; he wanted to unite all German speakers; Mussolini was powerless to stop him in 1938, because he was off fighting the Spanish Civil War
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How did Hitler destabilise the Austrian political parties?
He encouraged the Austrian Nazi Party to make trouble. This made the Chancellor (Schuschnigg) plea to Hitler, who, instead of helping, forced him to appoint Seyss-Inquart. Seyss-Inquart then took over and let the Germans in.
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What were the consequences of the Anschluss
It mainly acted as a confidence boost, but the Treaty of Versailles was also broken again; the Sudentenland was then invaded; Hitler's allegiance with Mussolini was enshrined and Britain let him off. This is because the Austrians accepted it
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What was appeasement?
The process of giving someone what they want, in the hope that they would then stop demanding
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What were the political arguments for appeasement?
Britain thought Versailles was too harsh
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What were the political arguments against appeasement?
It built Nazi morale and confidence; other countries could take their lead from Germany and this was a betrayal of France
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What were the economic arguments for appeasement?
There was not much money to fight a war and Germany had to stay strong enough to trade with Britain
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What were the economic arguments against appeasement?
War creates full-time jobs
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What were the military arguments for appeasement?
It avoids a war like WWI; it builds up a communist defence; a war with Hitler would alienate Mussolini and Britain had seen Blitzkrieg at Guernica
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What were the military arguments against appeasement?
It gave the Germans time to build their army and Hitler could demand the weakening of countries
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What were the other arguments for appeasement?
The League of Nations could not be trusted, so another way had to be found; Hitler's demands seemed reasonable and America was an isolationist at the time
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What were the other arguments against appeasement?
It relies on Hitler's demands being reasonable; it made Britain look weak; you evidently couldn't trust Hitler i.e. the Rhineland and Britain were negotiating for countries without their consent
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When was the Sudetenland Crisis?
1938
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Why did Hitler want the Sudetenland, and where was the Sudetenland?
The Sudetenland was the outer border of Czechoslovakia with Germany. Hitler wanted it because he wanted Czechoslovakia to get to Poland; the Sudetenland contained all the Czechoslovak defences and the Sudetenland had a lot of Germans in ot
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How did Hitler take the Sudetenland?
He told the Czechoslovak Nazis to rebel; then demanded a plebiscite over it. Britain and France put pressure on Benes (the Czechoslovak president) to accept; Hitler demanded it without the plebiscite and took it.
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When was the Munich Conference?
1938
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What was decided there?
The Sudetenland would become German; the rest of Czechoslovakia would be safe and Britain and Germany would be peaceful
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Who was noticeably missing at the Munich Conference?
Benes
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What were the consequences of the Munich Agreement?
Czechoslovakia had lost its defensive frontier and was vulnerable; Hitler had gained what Benes had lost; Czechoslovakia had been betrayed; Hitler didn't have to fight for the Sudetenland; the USSR were left out and Britain sped up rearmament
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When did Czechoslovakia fall?
1939
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How did Hitler take over Czechoslovakia?
He made the Slovaks rebel; demanded the country from Hacha and gave no help when other countries started to divide it up as well. Eventually Hacha gave in
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What were the consequences of the takeover of Czechoslovakia?
The end of appeasement; Lithuania had to give up Memel; Italy conquered Albania and Britain guaranteed Poland's safety. Hitler also made the Pact of Steel with Italy and withdrew the 10 year non-aggression pact and the naval agreement
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When was the Nazi-Soviet Pact signed?
1939
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Why was this a shock?
Hitler notoriously hated the communists, so it was a big shock when he wanted to ally with them
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What were the public terms?
That Russia would not attack Germany for 10 years, and vice versa
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What were the secret terms?
That Russia and Germany would perform a scissor movement on Poland, one from the east and one from the west, and then carve it up appropriately
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What were the consequences of the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
Stalin had time to prepare for an inevitable German attack; it proved that Poland was going to be invaded (and therefore that Britain would go to war); there would not be a war on two fronts and Britain could no longer ally with Stalin
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When was the invasion of Poland. Give an exact date.
1st September 1939
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What were the details of the German invasion of Poland?
Hitler had always wanted Danzig, but Poland was in the way and wouldn't give in. So, Hitler invaded it on the 1st, prompting Britain to declare war on the 3rd. Despite this, Poland was overrun in 4 weeks. However, Britain still continued the war
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What were the consequences of the invasion of Poland (pretty obvious)
WWII was declared
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Card 2

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Who represented America at Versailles?

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Woodrow Wilson

Card 3

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Who represented Britain at Versailles?

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Card 4

Front

Who represented France at Versailles?

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Card 5

Front

What were Wilson's 4 main demands at Versailles?

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