Intergroup behaviour

What is intergroup behaviour?
any perception, cognition or behaviour that is influenced by people's recognition that they and others are members of distinct social groups
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What is intergroup behaviour regulated by?
People's awareness of and identification with different social groups
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What can interactions be?
Face to face or perceived threats from other groups (When people claim 'foreigners stealing our jobs)
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What is social behaviour influenced by?
Social categories to which we belong and the power and status relations between those groups
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What is an economic perspective of intergroup conflict?
Realistic conflict theory
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What is motivational perspective of intergroup conflict?
Relative deprivation, social identity theory and terror management theory
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What is the cognitive perspective of intergroup conflict?
Self categorisation theory
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Why was social categorisation theory designed?
In order to assign limitations of SIT
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What does self categorisation theory provides an explanation for what?
How social identity differs from personal identity
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What is a key feature of realistic conflict theory?
Ethnocentrism
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What did Sherif believe resulted in group conflict?
Competition between groups over scarce resources
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What can resources be?
Physical, economic, conceptual
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When does discrimination increase?
Economic hardship among the groups that have the most to lose
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Sherif's summer camp experiment
22 boys participated in a summer camp which was divided into 2 groups 'Eagles and Rattlers'
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What are the four phases?
Spontaneous friendship formation, in group and norm formation, intergroup competition, intergroup cooperation
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What does the nature of group goals determine?
Relations
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RElations between individuals?
Tend to cooperate and form a group if there is a common goal that requires interdependence, mutually exclusive goals lead to inter individual competition
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What were the relations between groups?
Mutually exclusive goals between groups result in realistic intergroup conflict and ethnocentrism, shared goals results in cooperation
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What were the conditions of the contract?
Mutually incompatible goals --> increased intragroup solidarity and intergroup hostility
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What did a superordinate goal lead to ?
reduced conflict - achievement benefits all members of both groups
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However, what happened once immediate crisis was over?
Groups fell back into old hostile behaviour --> No long term effect
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What is needed to be introduced?
Series of contact conditions involving superordinate goals
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What developed?
New friendships developed, but some negativity lingered
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What was dickerson's critical review?
Conflict is not understood in terms of individual characteristics but in terms of group processes
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What is relative deprivation?
Discrepancy between actualities (What is) and expectations or entitlements (What ought to be)
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What is relative deprivation a precondition for?
Intergroup aggression
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What was Davies hypothesis?
The J curve hypothesis
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What is the first type of relative deprivation?
Egoistic relative deprivation: An individual's own sense of deprivation relative to other similar individuals
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What is fraternalistic relative deprivation?
Collective sense that our group has less than it is entitled to compared to other groups
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What does fraternalistic relative deprivation lead to?
Social unrest
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What is the first factor that influences relative deprivation?
Strong group identification
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What is the second factor that influences relative deprivation?
Perceived effectiveness of action: People who believe that taking action will redress the imbalance
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What is the third factor of relative deprivation?
Perceptions of injustice: Group has less than it is entitled to, unfair procedures
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What is ingroup-outgroup comparisons?
Likelihood for action depends on which outgroup we compare our group against
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What is a minimal group paradigm?
Experimental methodology to investigate the effect of social categorisation on group behaviour
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What is a minimal group paradigm?
Groups formed on a flimsy criterion, no past history or possible future, members had no knowledge of other members, no self interest in the money allocation trask
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What was found?
Participants allocate resources unfairly (Favour of the ingroup)
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When is it observed?
In children as young as 7 and 12 years, when they were given coins to distribute
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However, what could the results be due to?
Demand characteristics and positive negative symmerty
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What is positive negative symmetry?
Effect less pronounced when pps distribute punishment to outgroup
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What does social identity theory state?
People show in group favourtism, because they derive self esteem not only from personal accomplishments but also from the status and achievements of their in groups
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How is social identity formed?
Through two processes: Social categorisation and social comparison
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What are people motivated to maintain?
A positive and secure self concept
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What are people motivated to reduce?
Uncertainty and have clearly defined identities
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What does identification with a social group define?
Our relationship with both in group and outgroup members and guides our behaviour
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Given than self esteem is based in part on our group membership what are we motivated to boost?
The status of the in group: • Give advantages to the in-group over the out-group. • Bask in the glory of a group victory. • Derogate members of the out-group. • React to criticism of the group personally (for strongly identified group members)
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What is terror management theory?
Innate drive for survival and awareness of the inevitability of death - incapacitating terror
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To assume the paralysing fear of death, what do humans do?
Embrace cultural worldviews,
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What are the cultural world views?
Offer literal immportality (Religion) or symbolic immortality (Investment in future generations
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Terror management theory, what do people derive?
Self esteem from adhering to the standard of their cultural system
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when we are reminded of our impending mortality?
We seek protection by reaffirming our cultural worldviews
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What is realworld application?
International and intranational conflicts over religion and the moral ways of living
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What did McGregor et al do
Made pps evaluated like minded or dissimilar political people
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What is self categorisation theory?
• The cognitive organisation of categories occurs in line with the meta-contrast principle: • maximises perceived differences with out-groups and minimises in-group differences.
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What is depersonalisation?
Perception and treatment of self and others not as unique individual persons buy as prototypocal embodiment of social group
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What is the accentuation effect?
Overestimation of similarities among people within a category and dissimilarities between people from different categories
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What is the relative homogeneity effect?
tendency to see ingroup members as more differentiated, and out-group members the same (Brigham & Barkowitz, 1978)
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What is the contact hypothesis?
The view that bringing members of opposing social groups together will improve intergroup relations and reduce prejudice and discrimination.
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What should contact meet?
Prolonged and cooperative interaction (c.f. Sherif, 1966). • Integration should be institutionally supported. • Contact between groups of equal social status – difficult to operationalize in controlled experiments
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What is hypothesised?
• It is hypothesized to work because familiarity breeds liking and this transfers to a range of different contexts. • Mere exposure effect (Zanjonc, 1968): repeated exposure to a stimulus increases liking for it.
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Pettigrew and Tropp (2006)
meta-analysis of 515 studies between 1949 and 2000 across 38 nations. • Intergroup contact was effective – 94% of samples showed an inverse relationship between contact and prejudice. • The effects of contact generalized beyond the contact situation.
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What were allport;s conditions were what?
were effective, but not essential for a reduction prejudice. • BUT – his conditions were only fully observed in 19% of samples!
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What did research suggest?
Research suggests uncertainty reduction is a mechanism – contact reduces the anxiety of not knowing how to act, how you will be perceived by the others and whether you will be accepted (Stephan et al., 2002)
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What is intergroup competitive victimhood
group members involved in violent conflicts believe their group has suffered more than the other. • It can escalate violence and prevent peaceful resolution
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Card 2

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What is intergroup behaviour regulated by?

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People's awareness of and identification with different social groups

Card 3

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What can interactions be?

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Card 4

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What is social behaviour influenced by?

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Card 5

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What is an economic perspective of intergroup conflict?

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