Interfering with Enzymes

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How do many poisons take effect?
They inhibit or over activate enzymes
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What does potassium cyanide do?
It inhibits cell respiration - it is a non competitive inhibitor for CYTOCHROME OXIDASE (enzyme in mitochondria) inhibition decreases the use of O2 (ATP cannot be made = build up lactic acid)
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Why are enzymes prescribed to cystic fibrosis sufferers?
The passage of digestive enzymes (liver to gut) is blocked = cannot digest properly so given enzymes in a tablet and are coated in acid resistant coat
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What is Ethylene glycol poisoning ?
When alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme breaks down the ethylene glycol it produces oxalic acid which is extremely toxic - given large amount of ethanol to act as competitive inhibitor
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Why can bacteria resist antibiotics?
An individual may have a mutation that makes them resistant - may inactivate the antibiotics, many bacteria resistant to penicillin as they produce the enzyme beta-lactamase that breaks it down
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How does penicillin inhibit bacteria?
It is an inhibitor of the enzyme that forms cross links in the cell wall - cell wall not made so reproduction is halted
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What is snake venom?
A mixture of different toxins and enzymes
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What do the enzymes in snake venom do?
Interfere with the preys heart causing a fall in blood pressure - cause paralysis through inhibition of nerve transmission and one that breaks down connective tissue so toxins penetrate quickly often contains ATP-ase to disrupt preys energy
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Card 2

Front

What does potassium cyanide do?

Back

It inhibits cell respiration - it is a non competitive inhibitor for CYTOCHROME OXIDASE (enzyme in mitochondria) inhibition decreases the use of O2 (ATP cannot be made = build up lactic acid)

Card 3

Front

Why are enzymes prescribed to cystic fibrosis sufferers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Ethylene glycol poisoning ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why can bacteria resist antibiotics?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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