Interfering with Enzymes- Poisons & Drugs (2.1.3)

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What does potassium cyanide do?
Inhibits cell respiration as it's a non-competitive inhibitor for one of the vital respiratory enzymes found in mitochondria. This inhibits aerobic respiration and ATP production. The organism will only be able to respire anaerobically.
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What will the products of the anaerobic respiration be?
It produces lactic acid which is toxic in high concentrations. It generates much less ATP, not enough energy to survive.
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How does the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning work?
If taken into the body, it is broken down by the live to produce a very toxic product. To prevent poisoning, you need to inhibit the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme. Alcohol is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme.
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What does snake venom contain?
Phosphodiesterase enzyme- interferes with heart & reduces blood pressure. Digestive enzymes- breaks down connective tissue- helps toxins to penetrate tissues quickly. ATPase enzymes- break down ATP molecules so prey has no energy available.
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How do enzymes help with the treatment of cystic fibrosis?
With CF, the passage of digestive enzymes from the pancreas to gut is blocked, so digesting food is difficult. Doctors can provide enzyme tablets to overcome this.
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Why would enzyme tablets need an acid-resistant coating?
Otherwise they would be destroyed by HCl in the stomach, plus the protein-digesting enzymes in the stomach would break down the enzymes in the tablets.
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How do competitive inhibitors treat HIV?
The HIV virus uses protease enzymes to replicate inside host cells to make new viruses. Protease inhibitors can be used to prevent these viruses from replicating in the body.
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What are inborn errors of metabolism?
Mutations in the DNA code affect the final shape of the enzyme so that it no longer functions. Many diseases are due to the lack of a functional enzyme in a metabolic pathway, and are called inborn errors of metabolism.
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What is phenylketonurea?
PKU is where you can't convert phenylalanine (PA) to tyrosine because you lack the enzyme due to a mutation in the DNA coding.
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What happens to sufferers of PKU?
PA accumulates which can cause irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system in developing children. They will also have a lack of tyrosine, which is needed to make melanin pigment, so they'll be very pale-skinned.
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What is the treatment for PKU?
Newborn babies screened by taking drop of blood. If diagnosed, you'll need a controlled diet throughout childhood. Diet must contain only small amounts of PA- some is needed as it's an essential amino acid. Once an adult, brain is fully developed.
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What will the products of the anaerobic respiration be?

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It produces lactic acid which is toxic in high concentrations. It generates much less ATP, not enough energy to survive.

Card 3

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How does the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning work?

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Card 4

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What does snake venom contain?

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Card 5

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How do enzymes help with the treatment of cystic fibrosis?

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