LTM type + Interference

which memories are declarative?
Episodic and semantic
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Which memories are procedural?
procedural memories
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what type of memory starts an an episodic memory?
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which memories are time stamped?
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E1: what brain scan evidence is there for the existence of episodic memories?
Episodic meories draw information from the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe to the hipocampus to form a memory
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E1: what brain scan evidence is there for the existence of Semannticmemories?
there is activity in the temporal lobe
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E1: what brain scan evidence is there for the existence of procedural memories?
the cerebellum is involved in the motor cortex and which controls the basil ganglia and the limbic system
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E2: what Case study provides some evidence the brain deals with declarative information doifferently?
HM who damaged his hippocampus and his temporal lobe was taught to mirror draw (Corkin, 2002)
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E3: waht evidence is there to suggest that new semantic memories can be formed independently of episodic memories
Hodges and Patterson (2007) - in Alzheimers patients
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E3: why did Hodges and Patterson not have sufficient evidence?
Because temporal meoories place agreater congnative demand on the individual and so is more affected by brain damage
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E3: what further evidence provided more conclusive information?
Irish (2011) found alzimenrs pateints with the reverse : good episodic memories but poor semantic ones
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who investigated retroactive interference?
Muller and Pilzecker (1900)
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PPs were given a list of nonsense syllables to learn in 6 minutes what were the two conditions?
they were given a retentioin interval, thoes asked to describe a painting in the intervening period did less well when recalling the list
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who investigated proactive interference?
Underwood (1957)
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what did Underwood conclude from his meta analysis?
if PPs learn 10+ lists in 24hrs they will only be able to recall 20% however if a PPs only learns 1 list thne in 24hrs he will be able to remember 70% of the list
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How did McGeoch and McDonald (1931) show that the similarity of material had an effect on interference?
PPs had 2 lists A and B. they all learned list A (a set of adjectives). if list B was synonymous with list A the recall was 12%. if they were nonsense syllables - 26% if they are digits it is 37%
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What did Baddelley and Hitch find in 1977?
injured rugby players remembered more games in the season as there healthy counterparts suffered from interference
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E1: Why might these studies have low ecological validity?
Most involve the memory of word lists rather than anything meaning ful despite Baddeley and Hithc (1977)
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E2: How much forgetting can be put down to interference?
very little - to forget by interfernce the two meomries must be quite similar, Anderson (2000) points out that while it's still valid we' are unsure how much forgetting it is responsible for
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E3: what did Ceraso (1967) find to suggest forgetting occurs when memories are temporarily unavailable not lost entirely?
Ceraso found that memory tested again after 24hrs, recognition (accessibility) showed spontaneous recovery whereas recall (availability) remained the same
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Card 2


Which memories are procedural?


procedural memories

Card 3


what type of memory starts an an episodic memory?


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Card 4


which memories are time stamped?


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Card 5


E1: what brain scan evidence is there for the existence of episodic memories?


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