Intelligence in non-human animals

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  • Created by: millie
  • Created on: 07-06-15 14:16
What did Whiten and Byrne suggest about intelligence in non-human animals?
Some individuals have Machiavellian intelligence meaning they are able to manipulate individuals in their social group without creating any aggression
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What does Machiavellian Intelligence require
Theory of Mind=individuals can mentalise their own and other's state of mind realising that others have mental states including beliefs and desires. This allows them effectively to 'mind read' & plan actions accordingly
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How in Machiavellian intelligence demonstrated in non-human animals?
1. Manipulation and deception 2. Forming alliances
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How do individuals in social-living animal groups use manipulation and deception?
Manipulate non-allies to help them by using specific tactic such as attention management=diverting target's attention towards/away from something that will profit individual creating the diversion
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What animals is the ability of manipulation and deception mainly limited to?
Great apes, but other primates have shown being able to learn from watching
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How do individuals in social-living animal groups show the ability of forming alliances?
They form alliances with individuals who in the future could provide useful help.It is helpful for them to have the right allies as this can determine power in complex social group more so than physical strength
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What type of animals does Harcourt (1992) say forming alliances this way is limited to?
Although forming alliance is shown in other animals, only catarrhine primate, such as baboons,show to form them because the individual can later provide usefully for them
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How do female rhesus monkeys use Machiavellian intelligence?
Reproduction-may have sex with the dominant alpha male, increasing the chance of him later protecting the newborn infants
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What are the important consequences in the development of social intelligence?
Individuals whose social intellect is highly developed create pressures in selection on those who are less developed so that over evolutionary time, an 'arms race' of social intelligence among particular species may develop
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Who provides support to the claim that animals do have a theory of mind?
Byrne
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What did Byrne do in his study and what did he find that supports animals having a theory of mind?
Researched gorilla troops.Males sexual behaviour in these troops usually involves only dominant silverback male having mating access to females.He found subordinate males often sneak off to hidden place with female
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Continuation of Byrne's findings...
and inhibit calls usually made when mating.Similar behaviour is also demonstrated in chimps.Tells us apes do you tactical deception in an adaptive way
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What is another indication of intelligence other than showing manipulation and deception/forming alliances?
Self-recognition in a mirror
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What animals have shown to have the ability of self-recognition?
Adult chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans but monkeys are more distant ancestors of humans who don't show this ability. Non-ape primates such as dolphins, killer whales & elephants have shown the ability
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What did Gallup (1970) do in their study of self-recognition in chimpanzees?
Got them accustomed to mirror,gave them anaesthetic and put red mark on forehead & ears.When anaesthetic wore off,showed no interest in red mark until seeing self in mirror making them touch the marks on their face in response to mirror image
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What did Reiss and Marino (2001) do in their study of self-recognition on dolphins?
Used 2 dolphins,used different trials of either marking them with black ink,sham-marking with water-filled marker or not marking at all.Put in front of reflective surface,found spend more time in front of mirror when had black ink mark
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Continuation of Reiss and Marino's findings...
Found dolphins also tried to find best reflective surface to view the mark,demonstrating they could recognise their reflections.Similar study on killer whales found similar findings
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What is thought to be the cause of some primates and dolphins having this similar ability of self-recognition?
As dolphins & primates have very different brain organisation & evolutionary histories but still show this intelligence,could be more down to similarities in cognition that result from highly developed large brain
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What is one issue with accepting that animals posses such consciousness such as theory of mind?
Ethical issues must be considered in terms of animal rights e.g.endangered species like Asian elephants,shown ability of self-recognition,showing consciousness & intelligence.Therefore more should be done to protect them,similar to own human rights
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Continuation of issue in accepting that animals posses consciousness...
as it is otherwise even more unethical if they are conscious of their bad treatment
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What is a weakness in the theory that animals have self-recognition?
Lack of research support-Heyes(1998) says there's not much support for ability being present in all primate species
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What else does Heyes say about self-recognition evidence?
Also says evidence of primates being able to explore own bodies in mirror is unconvincing & not an indication of self-concept or self-recognition similar to human's cognitive abilities.
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What does Heyes comment about self-recognition evidence suggest?
More research needs to be done on a wider range of primate's self-recognition & even perhaps that researchers are wrong in looking at self-recognition in animals as in indication of intelligence
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What does Machiavellian Intelligence require

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Theory of Mind=individuals can mentalise their own and other's state of mind realising that others have mental states including beliefs and desires. This allows them effectively to 'mind read' & plan actions accordingly

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How in Machiavellian intelligence demonstrated in non-human animals?

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Card 4

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How do individuals in social-living animal groups use manipulation and deception?

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Card 5

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What animals is the ability of manipulation and deception mainly limited to?

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