Intelligence Tests, Predictors, Mediating Factors

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 24-04-16 18:11
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
Aim to identify mentally handicapped children
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Aged/ Sample size
3-10/ 50
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intelligence age< actual age=
Mentally handicapped
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Stanford- Binet Test (Terman)
Adapted to American Kids- 1000
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QI=
Mental age/ Actual age x 100- single index!
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Army Alpha and Beta tests
verbal + non-verbal (better for international)
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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Several indices
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Ages for adults/ children
17-90/ 5-16
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Raven's Progressive Matrices
Non-verbal
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WAIS- Verbal IQ
Verbal comprehension index + Working memory index
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Performance IQ
Perceptual Organisation Index + Processing Speed Index
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IQ measured by
How IQ differs from age group= norm referencing
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Multiple abilities tested
Closer to g
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Reliable estimates from
reading ability
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Mean/ SD
100/ 15- assume normal distribution
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Increase in intellectual growth through childhood and early adolescence
Coincides with rapid brain development- especially in pre-frontal cortex
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Language 2yrs/ 6yrs/ 16yrs
50-300/ 14,000/ 40,000
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Increasing processing speed
Visual matching task
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STM capacity 5/12/ adults
4/6/7
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Abilities relate to
Frontal lobe function
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Verbal IQ (crystallised)
Gradual Increase and gradual decline
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Procedural IQ (fluid)
Steep drop from age 30
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Scottish IQ survey
kids born in 1921- correlated with Binet test- r= 0.8
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kids born in 1936 in 1947
Small increase in intelligence
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1999-2001
good correlation between score at 10-11 and 80
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11-80
r=0.66
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11-90
r=0.54
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Rank order
stays same
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Education
School attainment, years in education, qualification all correlate with intelligence tests
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IQ at age 9
Predicted education attainment at age 12
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Educational attainment at age 9
Didn't predict IQ at age 12
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Social economic status and income
correlate with educational attainment but less strongly that IQ
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Controlling for family background
doesn't eliminate IQ correlation
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IQ correlates with job status=
r=.45
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More complex jobs
Higher correlation
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IQ correlates with job performance
r=.54
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Mortality
Scottish kids- IQ correlates with mortality (more in women)
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Swedish conscripts
IQ correlates with death by CHD, suicide, accidents and other, but not cancer
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Schizophrenia
Correlation between intelligence and sz/ decrease of IQ by 15 points early on in disease- good predictor
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Bipolar disorder- Swedish study
Low and high IQ- more likely to develop than if average
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Different study partially confirmed findings
Higher arithmetic reasoning score= increased risk/ higher visuo-spatial score= decreased risk
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Mechanism
IQ differences-> Disease + Injury prevention/ Disease + Injury management/ SES/ Education-> Physical and Mental health-> Mortality
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H^2
Proportion of individual differences in a trait that can be explained by genetic factors
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Environmental factors
1-h^2
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Developing countries
lower rates of H^2
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Height H^2 Nigeria/ Jamaica/ US (black americans)
62%/ 76%/ 87%
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South Korea/ North Korea
South 6 inches taller than north
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family studies average
50% similarity
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intelligence for Mz twins
0.86
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same person retested
0.87
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Positive assortitative mating/ negative assortitative mating
Mating with someone similar to you= increased genetic similarity
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Breastfeeding
No evidence for increased intelligence
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Belford et al
3.7 IQ point advantage!
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Iodine
Essential for synthesis of thyroid hormones
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Thyroid gland involved in
control of metabolic activity
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iodine deficiency=
mental retardation
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particularly sensitive to iodine deficiency
pregnancy and first 3 years
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Iron deficiency most common nutritional disorder globally- affects IQ!
10% developed/ 40% undeveloped
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Lead
Highly poisonous
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Port-Pirie- large smelting plant in Australia
Effect on intelligence from prenatal and antenatal exposure
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Excessive Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
Craniofacial abnormalities/ stunt growth/ severe IQ deficits
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Light drinking
Mixed results- some show mediating factor is presence of enzymes responsible for breaking down alcohol
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Excessive smoking during pregnancy- 18yrs=
6 points less than controls
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Card 2

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Aged/ Sample size

Back

3-10/ 50

Card 3

Front

intelligence age< actual age=

Back

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Card 4

Front

Stanford- Binet Test (Terman)

Back

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Card 5

Front

QI=

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