Intelligence

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What are some of the problems with measuring genetic heritability?
1. It can be argued that the environment is never adequately taken into account 2. Additive genetic variation 3. Dominant vs. recessive genes 4. Epistatic genetic variation 5. Twin and adoption studies are not representative of 'normal' life
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Who listed 21 environmental influence on intelligence?
Bouchard and Segal
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Who identified four main effects of environmental influences on intelligence?
Neisser et al. (1996)
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What did Oddy et al. 2004 find?
A correlation between breast feeding and verbal intelligence
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Who found a correlation between low birth weight and breast feeding?
Smith et al. (2003)
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Who investigated the impact of lead exposure in the largest lead smelting facilities in Australia?
McMichael et al. (1986)
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What did Motensen et al. 2005 find?
That a smoking mother resulted in a lowered IQ
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Who found that length of schooling was important in verbal and non-verbal reasoning tests?
Cahan and Cohen (1989)
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Wahlsten, 1997 found what?
Delays in starting school costs 5 IQ points per year
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Neisser et al. 1996 identified what 4 environmental influences on intelligence?
1. Biological Variables 2. Cultural Variables 3. School and Education Variables 4. Family Variables
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What is the 'Flynn Effect'?
The study of how IQ scores of a population change over time
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What did Flynn, 1994 do?
Studied the change in IQ scores over the population of countries over the previous 60 years
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What is the general result of the Flynn effect?
Countries see increases of between 5 and 25 IQ points every 10 years or so
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Which theorists have found little to no difference between the sexes in intelligence?
1. Terman (1916) 2. Spearman (1927) 3. Court (1983) 4. Jensen (1998) 5. Mackintosh (1998) 6. Anderson (2004)
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What did Richard Lynn (2005) and Paul Irwing (2004) argue with regards to differences in intelligence between the sexes?
There had been no meta-analysis conducted
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What are the types of reliability with psychometric tests?
1. Internal reliability 2. Split-half reliability
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What are the types of validity with psychometric tests?
1. Convergent validity 2. Concurrent validity 3. Discriminate validity 4. Face validity
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Briefly define reliability:
The overall consistency of a measure
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How can you get evidence for convergent validity?
Compare it to another tool that measures something similar
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Give an example of convergent validity:
Big 5 and Eysenck's 3-factor model
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How can you get evidence for concurrent validity?
There should be strong correlations with other known and accepted tools
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What is an example of concurrent validity?
When developing the BFI-10, the authors checked it against the BFI-44
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How can you get evidence for discriminate validity?
When a test is not related to something that it should not be
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What is an example of discriminate validity?
Stress and depression
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How can you get evidence for face validity?
Does the measure look like the concept it is designed to measure?
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Card 2

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Who listed 21 environmental influence on intelligence?

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Bouchard and Segal

Card 3

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Who identified four main effects of environmental influences on intelligence?

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Card 4

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What did Oddy et al. 2004 find?

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Card 5

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Who found a correlation between low birth weight and breast feeding?

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