Intelligence

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 06-05-14 12:38
Intelligence
ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively and deal adaptively with the environment
1 of 49
Francis Galton theories
people inherit mental constitutions, normal distribition, First Primitive Test - reaction and sensory, believed importance of nervous system
2 of 49
Alfred Binet theories
No importance of nervous system, focused on imagery, attention and imagination
3 of 49
Difference between Binet and Galton
Binet wanted to resolve practical problems rather than supporting a theory
4 of 49
2 main theories
Intelligence develops with age, rate at which mental competance is gained is a characteristic of a person and thus consistent
5 of 49
Mental age
age at which a child performs on a task
6 of 49
IQ
Intelligence quotient, mental age:actual age x 100
7 of 49
Mean score of IQ test?
100, normal distribution
8 of 49
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale investigates
working memory and fluid reasoning
9 of 49
Two main approaches
Psychometric, Cognitive
10 of 49
Psychometric approach main theories
map structure of intellect and discover mental capacities, intellectual abilities are indepedant of each other
11 of 49
Spearman's two main test factors
G factor (core of intelligence, correlations between tests = 0-1, most 0.3 - 0.7), special abilities required to perform the task
12 of 49
Thurston
Space, Verbal Comprehension, Word fluency, Number facility, Perceptual speed, rote memory, reasoning
13 of 49
Crystalised intelligence
previously acquired knowledge, ability to recall from LTM, culturally bound
14 of 49
Fluid intelligence
novel problems where experiences don't provide solution, working memory, reasoning, logic
15 of 49
Comparison
Crystalised improves with age then peaks, fluid declines in adulthood
16 of 49
Carroll's Three-Stratum Model
General (g - factor), Broad (crystalised, fluid, memory), Narrow (70 specific skills)
17 of 49
Cognitive process approach
specific information-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability
18 of 49
Sternberg's Thriachic Theory
Metacomponents, performance components, knowledge-acquisition components
19 of 49
Metacomponents
high ordering process used to plan and regulate task performance, basis of fluid intelligence, slow = more intellectual
20 of 49
Performance components
Crystalised, memory process to perform task, perception and memory mechanisms to carry out plans
21 of 49
Knowledge-acquisition components
Crystalised, using previous experiences and combine with new insights
22 of 49
3 classes of adaptive problem solving
Analytical, practical, creative
23 of 49
Gardner's multiple intelligences
Linguistic, logical-maths, visuospatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic
24 of 49
What experience did Garnder use?
His observations of how specific human abilities are affected by brain damage
25 of 49
Critcism of Garnder
Most of his intelligences are actually talents
26 of 49
Emotional intelligence
Recognise, use emotions with thoughts, understand emotions, manage
27 of 49
Wechsler Tests
verbal IQ, performance IQ, full scale IQ (both together) and scores for specific skills
28 of 49
Theory-based intelligence tests (STAT)
measures crystalised by passage reading and fluid by logical problems
29 of 49
Achievement test
how much someone has already learnt, assumes everyones had the same teaching, predictor of future
30 of 49
Aptitude test
novel puzzle-like problems, difficult to construct one totally not related to prior learning, not relavent to world situations
31 of 49
Psychological tests
Measures individual differences related to a psychological concept based on a behaviour in a controlled situation
32 of 49
Three types of reliabiltity
Test retest, internal consistency (all items should correlate), inter-judge (same results with difference judge)
33 of 49
Three types of validity
Construct (meausres what it's designed to), Content (items measure skills underlying knowledge), Criterion related (correlation with meaningful criterion measures, predict future outcomes)
34 of 49
Dearey
Higher intelligence = longer life span, especially in women
35 of 49
Standardisation
development of norms (test scores from large sample for each age)
36 of 49
The Flynn Affect
Phenomena that intelligence scores are increasing, IQ increase of 28 since 1910, due to nurtition, technology, learning
37 of 49
Testing Conditions Two types
Static - do test and gather results, Dynamic - do test, receive feedback and redo test
38 of 49
Two main approaches of Sternberg's multicultural test
Reasoning problems not tied to a culture (Raven's progressive matrices) and create measures tailored to specific cultures
39 of 49
Sternberg and Grigorenka argue
heredity and environment contribute to intelligence, interact together, poor environments influence intelligence despite heredity
40 of 49
Genetic factors
1/2 - 2/3 accountable for IQ vriation, similar genes = similar IQ
41 of 49
Environmental factors
1/3 - 1/2 accountable for IQ variation, The Flynn Effect
42 of 49
Environment and disability causes
Biological/Genetic = 28% of cases, profound impairments likely to be genetic (diseases, drugs from mother, undetectable environmental causes)
43 of 49
outcome bias
the extent that a test underestimates a person's true intellectual ability
44 of 49
predictive bias
a situation that occurs if a test successfully predicts criterion measures, such as job and school performance, for some groups but not others
45 of 49
factor analysis
large number of measures to a small number of clusters, each cluster containing variables that correlate with each other
46 of 49
eminent people are successful because
ability to engage in problem solving, motivation/dedication/determination to obtain highest level, high general intelligence
47 of 49
Examples of index scales
verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory
48 of 49
When is dynamic testing useful?
Useful when testing people from other cultures who are not accustomed to taking Western-style cultures
49 of 49

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

people inherit mental constitutions, normal distribition, First Primitive Test - reaction and sensory, believed importance of nervous system

Back

Francis Galton theories

Card 3

Front

No importance of nervous system, focused on imagery, attention and imagination

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Binet wanted to resolve practical problems rather than supporting a theory

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Intelligence develops with age, rate at which mental competance is gained is a characteristic of a person and thus consistent

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Mind and behaviour resources »