Insulin regulation

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What is the 1st stage in the control of insulin secretion?
Cell membrane has calcium and potassium channels.
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Describe the 2nd stage of the control of insulin secretion?
Potassium ion channels are normally open so potassium ions flow out.
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What is the 3rd stage of insulin secretion control?
When blood glucose concentration is high, glucose moves into the cell.
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Describe the 4th stage of insulin secretion control.
Glucose is metabolised to produce ATP.
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What is the 5th stage of the control of insulin secretion?
The ATP closes the potassium ion channels.
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What is the 6th stage of the control of insulin secretion?
Accumulation of potassium ions alters potential difference across the cell - inside becomes less negatively charged.
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What is the 7th stage of the control of insulin secretion?
Change in potential difference opens the calcium ion channels.
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Describe the 8th stage of the control of insulin secretion
Calcium ions cause vesicles of insulin to fuse with the cell membrane, releasing insulin by exocytosis.
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What is the definition of diabetes mellitus?
A disease where the body is no longer able to control its blood glucose concentration.
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What issues can diabetes mellitus cause?
Inability of cells to take up glucose form the blood and can cause blood to be excreted in the urine.
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When may diabetes mellitus arise?
When the pancreatic beta cells fail to produce insulin or when insulin receptors become abnormal.
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What is type 1 diabetes also called and what is it caused by?
Juvenile-onset diabetes and caused by an autoimmune response where the body's own immune system attacks Beta cells and destroys them. Can be caused by a viral infection.
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What is type 2 diabetes also called and how it is caused?
Non-insulin dependent. Caused when insulin levels are normal or reduced but target cells fail to respond to the hormone due to receptor abnormalities.
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What factors can bring early onset of type 2 diabetes?
Obesity, a diet high in sugar, being Asian or Afro-Caribbean, family history.
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How is type 1 diabetes treated?
With insulin injections. Blood glucose conc must be monitored and correct dose of insulin must be given to ensure glucose conc remains stable.
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How is type 2 diabetes treated?
Careful monitoring and control of the diet. Match carbohydrate intake and use.
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What might eventually be the treatment for type 2 diabetes?
Insulin injections or drugs which slow down absorption of glucose from the digestive system.
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What does a glucose tolerance test involve?
Fasting for 8 hours then blood tests to determine fasting blood glucose conc. Ingestion of glucose and blood tests to monitor glucose conc at intervals over 2 and a half hours. Results are graphed.
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Card 2

Front

Describe the 2nd stage of the control of insulin secretion?

Back

Potassium ion channels are normally open so potassium ions flow out.

Card 3

Front

What is the 3rd stage of insulin secretion control?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the 4th stage of insulin secretion control.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the 5th stage of the control of insulin secretion?

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