institutionalisation and privation

  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 12-04-15 08:51
what did rutter suggest about deprivation and privation?
whilst the consequences of deprivation may be reversible, those of privation may not
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what did bowlby say is required for an attachment bond to develop?
a close continuous relationship where the adult interacts with the infant
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when/how does privation occur?
when the PCG is lost before a bond is made and there is no adequate substitute replacing them.
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what are the 2 ways of studying privation?
1. case studies - children in extreme conditions where they have been unable to form an attachment, 2. natural experiments on children who have been institutionalised or adopted
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what did Koluchova do?
case study - czech twins abused from 18m-7y - starved/beaten/unheated cellar/scared of people/no speech. when found put in learning difficulties schl + then adopted by 2 sisters. age 14 - normal speech + social functioning, age 20 above avg. intellig
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what did Skuse do?
case study - Mary and Louise isolated in sml room/tied to bed/smothered if noisy, mother had severe learning difficulties. discovered M - 2.5, L - 3.5 and hospitalised. L developed normal skills and in schl by 5, M went to autistic schl age 7.5
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what are the methodological issues of case studies?
1. retrospective hard to establish anything with accuracy - any developmental issues may predate their isolation or be a result of it, 2. many variable - lack of control - kids experience many types of privation & abuse hard to measure the effect.
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in what ays does Hodge and Tizard's experiment overcome the problems of the case studies?
1. early experiences are well documented - longitudinal, 2. children suffered emotional not physical privation.
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what were the aims of this experiment?
to see of privation had long term effects and if the effects of privation could be reversed.
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who were the ps?
65 kids before the age of 4 months institutionalised in a place where staff were forbidden from forming attachments
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by the age of 4 how many carers had they had
50 carers
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what was the naturally occurring independent variable?
33 had been adopted, 25 had been restored and 7 remained
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at what ages were the children assessed?
2, 8, 16
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how were they assessed?
interviews and questionnaires with the children/parents/teachers
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what other group was there inn this experiment?
a control group of children raised in a normal home
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what were the findings?
at 16 adopted children were closely attached to their fams, unlike restored kids. both groups had problems with peers - no best friend - and sought disinhibited attachment - permanent damage may be an effect of institutionalisation.
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what were the conclusions?
adopted children were more strongly attached to their new parents then the restored group - early privation is bad for ability to form relay. when other person doesn't work at relay. - adopted children didn't fully recover from effects of early priv.
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methodological criticisms:
1. participant attrition - over time some Ps drop out -- most troublesome kids are most likely to drop out so sample isn't representative. 2. sample bias -Ps aren't randomly allocated to groups - may be that adopted kids were "easier" so did better
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what is an ethical issue?
right to withdrawal - study involves a highly sensitive area so children can't be pressured into study
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what are 2 alternative explanations?
1. adopted kids may have lower self esteem due to being adopted leading to their issues outside home, 2. ex-institutional kids aren't yet ready to cope well with peer relationships but will eventually develop this ability - not permanent damage
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what did bowlby say is required for an attachment bond to develop?


a close continuous relationship where the adult interacts with the infant

Card 3


when/how does privation occur?


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Card 4


what are the 2 ways of studying privation?


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Card 5


what did Koluchova do?


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