Inorganic AS & A2

  • Created by: Jessinoch
  • Created on: 27-04-18 12:22
What are the anomalies in the first ionisation energies?
Mg + Al - small drop as Mg has outer electrons in 3s sub shell, whereas Al is starting to fill the 3p subshell meaning it is easier to remove / P + S - sulphur's outer e- is being paired with another electron in same orbital causing repulsion
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Describe the melting and boiling points across the period
Na, Mg, Al - metallic strong bonding, gets stronger the more electrons causing high mp/bp Si - macromolecular (many strong covalent bonds) high mp+bp Cl2, S8, P4 - simple molecular, vdw forces, weak mp+bp, Ar is monoatomic, weak vdw forces
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What happens to the melting points down group 2?
Melting points decrease as the atomic size increases meaning the distance between positive ions and delocalised electrons increases, therefore electrostatic attractive forces weaken
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What happens to the reactivity of the group 2 metals down the group?
Increases
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How does magnesium react with oxygen?
2Mg + O2 -> 2MgO (white solid) forming a bright white flame
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How does magnesium react with water?
Mg + 2H2O -> Mg(OH)2 + H2
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How does magnesium react with steam?
Mg(s) + H2O(g) -> MgO(s) + H2(g) forming a bright white flame
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What is the trend in the halogens melting & boiling points?
Increase down the group as the molecules become larger they have greater vdw forces
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Define electronegativity
The relative tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons in a covalent bond to itself
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What is the trend in electronegativity down group 7?
As you go down the group the electronegativity decreases as the atom radii increases due to increasing number of heels - this nucleus is therefore less able to attract the bonding pair of electrons
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What is the reaction between chlorine and potassium bromide?
Cl2(aq) + 2Br-(aq) -> 2Cl-(aq) + Br2(aq) - yellow solution, Cl has displaced Br
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What is the reaction between chlorine and potassium iodide?
Cl2(aq) -> 2I-(aq) -> 2Cl-(aq) + I2(aq) - brown solution, Cl has displaced I
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What is the reaction between bromine and potassium iodide?
Br2(aq) + 2I-(aq) -> 2Br-(aq) + I2(aq) - brown solution, Br has displaced I
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Adding silver nitrate to halide ions
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) -> AgCl(s) white ppt / Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) -> AgBr(s) cream ppt / Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) -> AgI(s) pale yellow ppt
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How would you differentiate between the silver halide precipitates if the colours looked similar?
AgCl dissolves in dilute ammonia forming a colourless solution, AgBr dissolves in concentrated ammonia to form a colourless solution, AgI does not react with ammonia as it is too insoluble
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How does the power of reducing agent change as you go down the halide group?
The halides show increasing power as reducing agents as you go down the group as they have a greater tendency to donate electrons as the ions get bigger it is easier for the outer electrons to be given away due to weak attraction from nucleus
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Fluorine salts with concentrated sulphuric acid
NaF(s) + H2SO4(l) -> NaHSO4(s) + HF(g) white steamy fumes of HF
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Chlorine salts with concentrated sulphuric acid
NaCl(s) + H2SO4(l) -> NaHSO4(s) + HCl(g) white steamy fumes of HCl
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Bromide salts with concentrated sulphuric acid
NaBr(s) + H2SO4(l) -> NaHSO4(s) + HBr(g) white steamy fumes of HBr
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HBr with sulphuric acid
2HBr + H2SO4 -> Br2(g) + SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) red fumes of Br2, colourless, acidic gas of SO2
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Iodide salts with concentrated sulphuric acid
NaI(s) + H2SO4(l) -> NaHSO4(s) + HI(g) white steamy fumes of HI and black solid/purple fumes of I2
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HI with sulphuric acid
2HI + H2SO4 -> I2(s) + SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) / 6HI + H2SO4 -> 3I2 + S(s) + 4H2O(l) / 8H1 + H2SO4 -> 4I2(s) + H2S(g) + 4H2O(l) white steamy fumes of HI, black solid/purple fumes of I2/acidic gas of SO2/yellow solid of S/H2S gas with bad egg smell
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What is disproportionation?
When an element in a reaction simultaneously oxidises and reduces
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Reaction of chlorine with water
Cl2(aq) + H2O(l) -> HClO(aq) + HCl(aq)
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Reaction of chlorine with water in sunlight (UV)
2Cl2 + 2H2O -> 4HCl + O2
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What is one use of chlorine?
For water treatment to kill bacteria - it can be used to treat drinking water and the water in swimming pools
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If chlorine is toxic, why is it used for water treatment?
The benefits of water treatment by chlorine outweigh its toxic effects
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Reaction of chlorine with cold dilute NaOH solution and its use
Cl2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) -> NaCl(aq) + NaClO(aq) + H2O(l) - the mixture of NaCl and NaClO is used as bleach to disinfect/kill bacteria
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How does Na react with oxygen?
4Na(s) + O2(g) -> 2Na2O(s) burns with yellow flame to produce white solid
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How does Mg react with oxygen?
2Mg(s) + O2(g) -> 2MgO(s) burns with white flame to give white solid
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How does Al react with oxygen?
4Al + 3O2(g) -> 2Al2O3(s) burns with white flame to give white solid
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How does Si react with oxygen?
Si + O2(g) -> SiO2(s) burns with white flame to give white solid
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How does P react with oxygen?
4P + 5O2(g) -> P4O10(s) burns with white flame to give white solid
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How does S react with oxygen?
S + O2(g) -> SO2(g) burns with a blue flame to form an acidic choking gas
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How is sodium and phosphorus stored to stop them reacting with the air
Sodium is stored under oil and phosphorus under water
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Describe the structure and bonding of the following: Na2O, MgO and Al2O3
Ionic giant lattice structures - strong forces of attraction between ions (high mps - stronger from Na->Al). Al2O3 is ionic but shows some covalent character due to small aluminium ion with high charge getting close to oxide ion and distorting cloud
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How would you prove that a compound contains ions experimentally?
Melt the solids and show they conduct electricity
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Describe the structure and bonding of SiO2
Macromolecular: It has many very strong covalent bonds between atoms. High energy needed to break the many strong covalent bonds – very high mp +bp
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Describe the structure and bonding of P4O10(s) and SO2(g)
Simple molecular with weak vdw forces btwn molecules therefore lower mp & bps. P4O10 is a bigger molecule than SO2, therefore will have more vdw forces between molecules making the mp & bps stronger.
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How does Na2O react with water?
Na2O (s) + H2O (l) -> 2Na+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) pH 13 (This is a vigorous exothermic reaction)
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How does MgO react with water?
MgO (s) + H2O (l)  Mg(OH)2 (s) pH 9
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How does Al2O3 react with water?
Al2O3 does not dissolve in water because of the high strength of the Al2O3 ionic lattice, so it gives a neutral pH 7
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How does SiO2 react with water?
SiO2 does not dissolve in water because of the high strength of the SiO2 macromolecular structure, so it give a neutral pH 7
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How does P4O10 react with water?
P4O10 (s) + 6 H2O (l) -> 4 H3PO4 (aq) pH 0 (this is a vigorous exothermic reaction)
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How does SO2 & SO3 react with water?
SO2 (g) + H2O (l) -> H2SO3 (aq) pH 3 (weak acid) & SO3 (g) + H2O (l) -> H2SO4 (aq) pH 0
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How does Na2O react with HCl and H2SO4 respectively?
Na2O (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -> 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) & Na2O (s) + H2SO4 (aq) -> Na2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l)
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How does MgO react with HCl?
MgO (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -> MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (l)
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How does Al2O3 react with HCl & H2SO4 respectively?
Al2O3 (s)+ 3H2SO4 (aq) -> Al2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3H2O (l) & Al2O3 + 6HCl -> 2AlCl3 + 3H2O (reacts as a base)
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How does Al2O3 react with NaOH?
Al2O3 (s)+ 2NaOH (aq) + 3H2O (l) -> 2NaAl(OH)4 (aq) - reacts as an acid
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How does P4O10 react with NaOH and Na2O respectively?
P4O10 (s) + 12 NaOH (aq) -> 4Na3PO4 (aq) + 6 H2O (l) & P4O10 + 6 Na2O -> 4Na3PO4
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How does both SO2 and SO3 react with NaOH respectively?
SO2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq) -> Na2SO3 (aq) + H2O (l) & SO3 (g) + 2NaOH(aq) -> Na2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l)
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How does SiO2 react with NaOH?
2NaOH (l) + SiO2 (s) -> Na2SiO3 (aq) + H2O
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What is a transition metal?
An atom or ion with an incomplete d sub-level
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What are the characteristics of a transition metal?
1. Complex formation 2. Formation of coloured ions 3. Variable oxidation state 4. Catalytic activity
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Why is Zn not a transition metal?
Zn can only form a +2 ion. In this ion the Zn2+ has a complete d orbital and so does not meet the criteria of having an incomplete d orbital in one of its compounds.
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Define complex
A central metal ion surrounded by ligands
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Define ligand
An atom, ion or molecule which can donate a lone electron pair
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Define coordinate bonding
When the shared pair of electrons in the covalent bond come from only one of the bonding atoms
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Define co-ordination number
The number of co-ordinate bonds formed to a central metal ion
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What is a monodentate ligand?
H2O, NH3 and Cl-, which can form one coordinate bond per ligand
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What is a bidentate ligand?
NH2CH2CH2NH2 and ethandioate ion (C2O4 2-), which have two atoms with lone pairs and can form two coordinate bonds per ligand
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What is a multidentate ligand?
EDTA 4-, which can form six coordinate bonds per ligand
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Draw an example of a complex with NH2CH2CH2NH2 as the ligand
https://chemrevise.files.wordpress.com/2018/04/2-5-revision-guide-transition-metals.pdf page 2
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Draw an example of a complex ion with ethanedioate as the ligand
https://chemrevise.files.wordpress.com/2018/04/2-5-revision-guide-transition-metals.pdf page 2
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What can EDTA complexes be used for?
It can be added to rivers to remove poisonous heavy metal ions as the EDTA complexes are not toxic. It is in many shampoos to remove calcium ions present in hard water, so helping lathering.
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What are the shapes of the complex ions?
1. Octahedral complexes with small ligands (90) 2. Tetrahedral complexes with larger ligands (109.5) 3. Square planar complexes with platinum (90) 4. Linear complexes with silver (180)
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What 3 factors can cause a colour change to arise?
1. Oxidation state 2. Co-ordination number 3. Ligand
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How does colour arise in transition metals?
Electronic transitions from ground state to excited state between d orbitals, a portion of visible light is absorbed to promote d electrons to higher energy levels - the light that is not absorbed is transmitted to give the substance colour.
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What equation links the colour and frequency of light absorbed?
∆E = hv where v = frequency of light absorbed (unit s-1 or Hz), h= Planck’s constant 6.63 × 10–34 (J s) and ∆E = energy difference between split orbitals (J)
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What compounds do not have colour and why?
Scandium's ion (Sc3+) hasn't got any d electrons left to move around - there is not an energy transfer equal to that of visible light. In the case of Zn2+ ions and Cu+ ions the d shell is full e.g.3d10 so the same applies.
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How would you determine the concentration of coloured ions experimentally?
1. Add an appropriate ligand to intensify colour 2. Make up sols of known conc 3. Measure absorption or transmission 4. Plot graph of adbsorption vs concentration 5. Measure absorption of unknown and compare
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What are the four main oxidation states and colours of Vanadium?
VO2+ is yellow, VO22+, is blue, V3+ is green and V2+ is violet
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What is a heterogeneous catalyst?
A different phase from the reactants - usually solids
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What is a homogeneous catalyst?
The same phase as the reactants - usually gaseous or in solution
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How does a heterogeneous catalyst work?
1. Reactants form bonds with atoms on active sites on surface of catalyst (adsorbed) 2. Bonds in reactants weaken & break 3. New bonds form btwn reactants held close on catalyst surface 4. Weakens bonds btwn product & catalyst and product desorbs
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What is the contact process?
Overall Equation: 2SO2 + O2 -> 2SO3 Step 1: SO2 + V2O5 -> SO3 + V2O4 Step 2: 2V2O4 + O2 -> 2V2O5
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What is the Haber Process?
N2 + 3H2 -> 2NH3
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What is the equation for manufacturing methanol?
CO + 2H2 -> CH3OH
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What is a lewis acid?
Electron pair acceptor
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What is a lewis base?
Electron pair donor
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Which is more acidic - [M[H2O]6]3+ or [M[H2O]6]2+?
The acidity of 3+ is greater than that of 2+ in terms of the greater polarising power (charge/size ratio) of the 3+ metal ion. The greater the polarising power, the more strongly it attracts the water molecule, weakens the O-H bond so breaks easier.
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See Aqueous Metal Ions Flashcards
:)
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How do you work out the maximum possible oxidation state of a transition metal?
The total number of 4s and 3d electrons
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Card 2

Front

Describe the melting and boiling points across the period

Back

Na, Mg, Al - metallic strong bonding, gets stronger the more electrons causing high mp/bp Si - macromolecular (many strong covalent bonds) high mp+bp Cl2, S8, P4 - simple molecular, vdw forces, weak mp+bp, Ar is monoatomic, weak vdw forces

Card 3

Front

What happens to the melting points down group 2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to the reactivity of the group 2 metals down the group?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does magnesium react with oxygen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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LucyLaa

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I might pass Paper 1 now - thank you so much! :)

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