Inheritence

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Gene
A sequence of bases on a DNA molecule that codes for a protein (polypeptide) results in characteristics
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Alleles
One or more versions of the same gene
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Locus
Fixed position where alleles of each gene are found
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Genotype
Genetic constitution of an organism - the different alleles on an organism
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Phenotype
The expression of the genetic constitution and its interaction with the environment
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Dominant
The allele that is expressed in preference (usually capital letter)
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Recessive
Allele which is only expressed if homozygous
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Co-dominant
Both alleles expressed equally in the phenotype and neither one is recessive
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Haploid (n)
Refers to cells in which the nucleus only contains single copy of the chromosomes e.g. gametes
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Diploid (2n)
Refers to cells in which the nucleus contains two sets of chromosomes e.g. normal body cells
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Sex- linked
Alleles that code for characteristics are located on the sex chromosome
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Species
A group of similar organisms that can reproduce fertile offspring
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Population
Group of organisms of the same species living in a particular area
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Gene pool
The complete rage of alleles in a population
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Hardy Weinburg Principle
p² + 2pq + q² = 1 (p+q=1)
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Stabalising Selection
Individuals with characteristics toward the middle range are more likely to survive and reproduce. This occurs when environment isn't changing and reduces the range of possible phenotypes
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Directional Selection
Individuals with alleles for characteristics of an extreme type are more likely to survive and reproduce. This could be a response to environmental change
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Speciation
A single population gets split an isolated int two groups, the different selective pressures can lead to the development of new species
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Geographical Isolation
Populations of the same species become reproductively isolated due to speciation. This can happen when a physical barrier e.g a flood or an earthquake divides a population of species, causing some to be separated from the main population
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

One or more versions of the same gene

Back

Alleles

Card 3

Front

Fixed position where alleles of each gene are found

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Genetic constitution of an organism - the different alleles on an organism

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The expression of the genetic constitution and its interaction with the environment

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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