Informal and Formal Fallacies

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  • Created by: Babso
  • Created on: 21-03-16 15:04
Fallacy
Is an error in reasoning; it is a type of argument that SEEMS correct, but contains a MISTAKE in REASONING.
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Formal Fallacy
A mistake that is the form or structure of a DEDUCTIVE argument,
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Informal Fallacy
Patterns of mistake that are made in the everyday use of language.
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FF- Affirming the Consequent
(if) p --- (then) q, q: p.
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FF- Denying the Antecedent
(if) p --- (then) q, not -p: not -q (looks like modus ponens but not)
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FF- Affirming a disjunct
p (or) v q, p: not -q (this is an inclusive disjunct thus is a fallacy)
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IF - Appeal to the POPULACE (Argumentum ad Populum)
Support is given for some conclusion is appeal to popular belief. For example, the majority of the people believe that p, therefore p is true.
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IF - Appeal to FORCE (Argumentum ad Baculum)
The argument relies upon an open or veiled threat of force - (physical or psychological threat).
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IF - Appeal to Inappropriate AUTHORITY (ad Verecundiam)
A conclusion is accepted as true simply because and EXPERT has said it's true. This is a fallacy whether or not the experts area of expertise is RELEVANT to the conclusion.
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IF - Appeal to PITY/EMOTION (ad Misericordiam)
An argument relies on generosity, altruism or mercy rather than REASON. For example, we cannot support p because p might hurt someone's feelings.
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IF - Argument against the PERSON (Argumentum ad Hominem)
The argument relies upon an ATTACK AGAINST THE PERSON taking a position. For example; the Senator claims that she will be honest with the voters. But she can't even be honest to her own children!
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IF -Argument from IGNORANCE - (ad Ignorantiam)
A proposition is held to be TRUE just because IT HAS NOT YET BEEN PROVEN FALSE, or FALSE because it has NOT YET BEEN PROVEN TRUE. For example; no one has proven the existence of God. There must be no God.
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IF - Begging the Question (petito principii)
The conclusion of an argument is STATED or ASSUMED in any one of the premises (CIRCULAR argument)
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IF - Equivocation
A fallacy in which TWO OR MORE MEANINGS of a word or phrase are used, ACCIDENTALLY or INTENTIONALLY, in DIFFERENT parts of the argument.
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IF- False Dilemma
You reason from an EITHER OR position and you haven't considered ALL relevant possibilties. For example, either you go to church OR you're a terrible person.
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IF - Genetic Fallacy
Basing the TRUTH claim of an argument on the ORIGIN of its claims or premises. For example, Jeff's mom told him that he'a superstar. So, Jeff is a superstar. - The conclusion is based on orgin(al) claim
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IF -Straw Man
An arguer distorts an opponents position by WEAKENING it or depicting it as being more EXTREME than is justified by what it is ACTUALLY asserted.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A mistake that is the form or structure of a DEDUCTIVE argument,

Back

Formal Fallacy

Card 3

Front

Patterns of mistake that are made in the everyday use of language.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

(if) p --- (then) q, q: p.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

(if) p --- (then) q, not -p: not -q (looks like modus ponens but not)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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