Influence of Early Attachment on Later Relationships

Who created the internal working model?
Bowlby
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What are internal working models?
Mental representations we carry with us of our primary attachment to our primary caregiver
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What do these internal working models act as for future relationships?
Internal working model act as templates for furture relationships
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What type of relationships will a child with a loving upbringing, seek out?
They seek out functional relationships and behave functionally within them
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What future relationships will a c child with a bad upbringing seek out?
They may struggle to form relationships, controlling and argumentative, too emotionally close or too uninvolved
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What is attachment type associated with?
The quality of peer relationships in childhood
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What kind of relationships will securely attached children be more likely to form?
Better quality friendships in later life
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What kind of relationships will insecurely attached children be more likely to form?
They will have friendship difficulties in later life
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Outline the procedure of the bullying vs. attachment study:
Questionnaires for 196 children aged 7-11 to test for attachment type and their bullying involvement
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Which attachment type was most liekly to be victims of bullying?
Insecure-avoidant children
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Which attachment type was most likely to be the bullies?
Insecure-resistant children
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Outline the study of attachment and romatic relationships and friendships in adult women:
40 were assessed when infants to collect attachment type, securely attached adults had the best friendships and relationships, insecure-resistant couldn't maintain friendships whereas insecure-avoidant had intimacy problems
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Outline the study into attachment and relationships with the love quiz:
620 replies to love quiz analysed. 3 parts assessed: respondants current/most important relationships,general love experiences, attachment type
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What were the findings of this love quiz?
Over half respondants were securely attached, 25% insecure avoidant, 19% insecure resistant
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What were the experiences of the securely attached people in this quiz?
Likely to have good/ longer lasting relationships
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What were the experiences of the insecurely avoidant attached people in this quiz?
Revealed jealousy and fear of intimacy
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What else can internal working models affect?
Child's ability to parent a child
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Why can internal working models affect the way in which a parent treats their child?
People base their parenting on their internal working model, so attachment type tends to be passed through the generations
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Which study can support the idea of parenting and the internal working model?
Psychologist looked at attachments of 99 mothers to both their own mothers and their babies
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How were the attachments of the 99 others assessed?
Using the strange situation and an adult attachment interview. They found that most women had the same attachment to both their babies and own mothers
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What evidence on the continuity of attachment type is there?
Some studies seem to support continuity such as the study with 40 adult women. However, others do not support the internal working models such as Zimmermans study
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Why do most studies have validity issues?
Most studies assess infant-parent attachment by interview or questionnaires which depends on respondants being honest and having a realistic view on their relationships. Also when reflecting back on childhoods, memories may not be accurate
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Explain why association doesn't mean causality:
Attachment type is associated with future relationships,
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Card 2

Front

What are internal working models?

Back

Mental representations we carry with us of our primary attachment to our primary caregiver

Card 3

Front

What do these internal working models act as for future relationships?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of relationships will a child with a loving upbringing, seek out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What future relationships will a c child with a bad upbringing seek out?

Back

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