Influence of Culture on romantic Relationships

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  • Created by: Emilyio
  • Created on: 17-04-16 16:21
( A01) Voluntary or non voluntary relationships - Western
Western cultures easy geographical + social mobility - on a daily basis we voluntarily interact with a large number of people, many being first aquantainces. A Western culture is then characterised by having a 'pool' of potential relationships
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( A01) Voluntary or non voluntary relationships - Non-Western
In contrast, non-western have low geographical + social mobility, and thus peeple have much less choice with whom they interact. Strangers are rare and relationships are tied to other factors (family or economoic resources)
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( A01) Individualistic
Importance n the rights and freedom of the individual. Individual happiness is seen as fundamentaly important.
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( A01) Collectivist
Encouraged to be interdependent, and the group tend to be priority
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( A01) Moghaddam et al 1993
Individualistic cultures are consistent with relationship formation being based on freedom of choice, where collectivist lead to relationship that have mire to do with familial concerns of family or group.
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( A01) Levine et al 1995 (method)
investigated love as a basis for marriage in 11 countries. REspondents were asked whether they would marry someone who had all the desired quialities for marriage but no love
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( A01) Levine et al 1995 (findings)
US= reluctant to marry without love, 14% said that they may. INDIA = 24% who would. THAILAND=34% who would. Suggesting that in collectivist cultures, they're more likely to marry in absence of love. extended family is of importance & love is a luxury
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( A01) Cultural differences in lonliness - Seepersad 2008
said that young people in the UK and USA would experience a greater degree of lonliness compared to adults from non-western cultures, such as china and korea.
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( A01) Seepersad's study reveals....
that a sample of 227 US and Korean students, US students reported hugher levels of romantic lonliness than Koreans when not in a relationship
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( A01) Seepersads study also shows emphasis on..... (Western)
The importance of romantic relationships in Western Cultures may amplify lonliness
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( A01) Seepersads study showed Koreans
Koreans relied heavily on their families to fufill their 'social network needs', American relied more on friends and significant others.
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( A01) Culture and Romance - Erikson 1968
believed that is the establishment of an intimate relationship in young adulthood was unsuccessful then it may lead to isolation
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( A01) Ho 1966
Stated that unlike in the West, Chineese couples see love and romance as less important and are only considered in light responsibility towards family. (spontaneous expressions of love, like sex, outside wed is inappropriate)
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( A01) Moore & Leung 2001
AUSTRALIAN STUDY - 212 anglo-australian students (born in UK, NZ or AU) and 106 Chinese Australian students (Hong Kong or China) to see romantic conservatism would manifest itself in different attitudes towards romance and different romantic styles
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( A01) Moore & Leung 2001 (findings)
of 2 groups, 61% of the Anglo-Australian students were in a RR compared to 38% of Chinese students. A-A males were less romantic (and more casual) than the females but Chinese males were as romantic as Chinese females.
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( A01) Moore & Leung 2001 (Last Finding)
Positive attitudes towards to romantic love were endorsed by both groups
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( A02) Arranged Marriages - Epstein 2002
Divorce rates are low and in around 50% of them, the spouses state that they've fallen in love with one another
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(A02) Myres et al 2005
no differences in marital satisfaction were found when compoared to India-living individuals in non-arranged marriages in the US
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(A02) Line of argument, Myres 2005
There have been noticeable increases in 'love matches' in rapidly developing countries like China. In China, instances of parents dominating marriage choice has decreased from 70% (
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(A02) Xiaohe @& Whyte 1990
Chinese women felt better for marrying out of love, regardless of duration than those in arranged marriages.
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(A02) Parents in relationships
Parents may be in a better position to judge compatibility in the long term. Young people may be 'blinded by love'. and over look areas of personal incompatibility which will appear later.
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(A02) However... Xiaohe & Whyte 1990..
their study showed that the freedom of mate choice appeared to promote marital stability.
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(A02) greater mobility and urbanisation..
There has been a sharp increase in divorce rates in India in recent years despite India being regarded as traditional.
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(A02) Methodological Issues
Methodological aspect is interpreted differently in one culture that in another, then this can invalidate any conclusions. Measures of love or satisfaction that have been developed in Western cultures might not have been valid in other cultures.
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(A02) Kim & Berry 1993
Some psychologists suggest tht we should aim to develop more indigenous psychologies.
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(A02) Pinker 2008
views romantic love as a 'human universal' that has evolved to promote survival and reproduction.
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(A02) Adaptation - Pinker 2008
Views romantic love as a human universal that has evolved to promote survival and reproduction among human beings. LT-commitment offers lower mortality rates, increased happines and decreased stress. How necessary is love?
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(A02) Adaptation - Jankowiak & Fischer 1992 -
searched for evidence of romantic love in a sample of nmon Western tribal societies. They found clear evidence of romantic love in 90% of the 166 cultures studied.
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(A02) Adaptation - Bartels & Zeki 2000
claim to have discovered a 'functionally specialised system', that lights up during fMRI scans of the brains of people who claim to be in love.
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(A02) Johnson & Holmes 2009
spent 1 year analysing 40 top box office films released between 1995-2005. Asked hundreds people to fill questionnaire to describe beliefs and expectations concerning RR.
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(A02)
Found that fans of films like "My Best Friends Wedding" + " How To Lose a Guy in 10 Days" had beliefs and expectations portrayed in the films. EXAMPLE= films suggest love and commitment occur at first meet when they actually take years.
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In contrast, non-western have low geographical + social mobility, and thus peeple have much less choice with whom they interact. Strangers are rare and relationships are tied to other factors (family or economoic resources)

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( A01) Voluntary or non voluntary relationships - Non-Western

Card 3

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Importance n the rights and freedom of the individual. Individual happiness is seen as fundamentaly important.

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Card 4

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Encouraged to be interdependent, and the group tend to be priority

Back

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Card 5

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Individualistic cultures are consistent with relationship formation being based on freedom of choice, where collectivist lead to relationship that have mire to do with familial concerns of family or group.

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