Infectious Diseases

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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that cause disease; bacteria, protozoa, fungi, viruses
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Give 6 examples of how pathogens are spread.
Air, water, food, contact, animal vectors, body fluids.
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Explain how pathogens can be spread by air and give an example.
Airborne pathogens are carried in the air in droplets produced when you sneeze or cough, then spread by someone else inhaling them. Influenza virus.
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Explain how pathogens can be spread by water and give an example of an infectious disease.
Picked up by drinking or bathing in dirty water. Cholera is spread when drinking water is contaminated with the diarrhoea of other sufferers.
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Explain how pathogens can be spread by food and give an example of an infectious disease.
Eating contaminated food. Salmonella, bacteria that cause food poisoning.
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Explain how pathogens can be spread by contact and give an example of an infectious disease
Touching contaminated surfaces including skin. Athlete's foot -fungul infection spread by touching same things as infected person.
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Explain how pathogens can be spread by body fluids and give an example of an infectious disease.
Such as blood (sharing needles to inject drugs), breast milk, ***** (during sex). HIV virus causes aids by body fluids.
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What are animal vectors?
Animals that spread disease.
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Give 2 examples of animal vectors.
Anopheles mosquito - carries protozoan that causes malaria. House fly - carries bacterium that causes dysentery (severe diarrhoea).
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Name two different types of physical barriers.
The skin and the respiratory system.
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How does the skin act as a physical barrier from pathogens?
Blood clots quickly to seal cuts and keep microorganisms out.
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How does the repiratory system act as a physical barrier from pathogens?
The nasal passage, trachea and lungs are lined with mucus and cilia which catchdust and bacteria before they reach the lungs. Cilia push gunk-filled mucus away from lungs.
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Name two different types of chemical barriers.
The eyes and the stomach.
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How do the eyes act as a chemical barrier from pathogens?
They produce a chemical called LYSOZYME which kills bacteria on the surface of the eye.
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How does the stomach act as a chemical barrier from pathogens?
Hydrochloric acid in stomach kills pathogens on food that you've eaten.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give 6 examples of how pathogens are spread.

Back

Air, water, food, contact, animal vectors, body fluids.

Card 3

Front

Explain how pathogens can be spread by air and give an example.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain how pathogens can be spread by water and give an example of an infectious disease.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain how pathogens can be spread by food and give an example of an infectious disease.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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