Infection and Response

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Define pathogen
A pathogen is a microorganism that causes a disease
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Define what a vector is?
A vector is any organism that can spread a disease
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Give an example of a viral disease found in plants
Tobacco mosaic virus or (TMV)
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Give an example of a viral disease found in humans
Measles
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Give a few examples of how communicable diseases may be transmitted?
Direct contact, air, water and vectors
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Explain how the skin protects the body from pathogens?
The skin acts as a physical barrier, if the skin is cut or grazed a scab will form, this prevents pathogens from infecting the open wound
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Explain how mucus and cilia in the trachea stops bacteria from infecting the body?
The cells that line the trachea are hairs know as cilia, these hairs move the mucus upwards towards the throat where it is then swallowed into your stomach
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Explain how the nose fights against pathogens?
The nose contains internal hairs which act as a physical barrier, cells in the nose also produce mucus which traps pathogens before they can enter the lungs. When the nose is finally blow, the mucus is removed as well as the pathogens it had trapped
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Explain how the stomach fights against pathogens?
Stomach acid is part of the body's non-specific defence against pathogens, the hydrochloric acid contained within the stomach acts as a chemical barrier, killing any pathogens enclosed within food, water and mucus
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Describe what a phagocyte is?
A phagocyte is a cell that is attracted to pathogens and engulfs them, the phagocyte membrane surrounds the pathogen and enzymes inside the cell begin to break down the pathogen in order to destroy it, they are know as a non-specific defence
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Define immune system
The second line of defence that minimises or stops the infection, is also know as the immune system
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Describe what a lymphocyte is?
Lymphocytes detect foreign proteins know as antigens found on the surface of pathogens, the lymphocytes and produce antibodies. These antibodies cause pathogens to stick together which make it easy for the phagocytes to engulf them
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What are the two types of white blood cells called?
Lymphocytes and Phagocytes
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Describe the disease 'cancer'?
Cancer is a non-communicable disease that occurs when cell division goes wrong, this causes two different types of tumours to form; malignant and benign
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Explain what a benign tumour is?
A benign tumour is a tumour that is not cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body
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Explain what a malignant tumour is?
A malignant tumour is a cancerous tumour which can break apart and spread to other parts of the body
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Describe how vaccinations work?
Vaccinations contain dead or inactive versions of a pathogen that are then introduced into the body, this causes the body's immune system to produce antibodies for the specific pathogen. This makes the person immune to the pathogen
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What is the process called when phagocytes engulf and digest pathogens?
Phagocytosis
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Define what a painkiller is?
Painkillers are chemicals that relieve the symptoms of a disease but do not kill the pathogens
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Define what an antibiotic is?
An antibiotic is a substance that slows or stops the growth of bacteria
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Name one antibiotic?
Penicillin
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Name one strain of bacteria resistant to antibiotics?
MRSA
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Define monoclonal antibodies?
Monoclonal antibodies are identical copies of one type of antibody
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How many cells are used to clone monoclonal antibodies?
One cell
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Describe the process in which monoclonal antibodies are made?
A mouse is vaccinated in order to stimulate production of antibodies, spleen cells removed which form antibodies, tumour cells and spleen cells fuse to form hybridoma cells, hybridoma cells are grown in tissue culture, monoclonal antibodies are made
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Define what a hybridoma is?
A hybridoma is a combination of mouse cells and tumour cells fused together
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Explain what monoclonal antibodies do?
Monoclonal antibodies bind to only one specific type of antigen, so they can be used to target a specific chemical or cells in the body.
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Name 3 uses of monoclonal antibodies?
Pregnancy tests, research of specific molecules, treat some diseases eg. cancer by delivering radioactive substances that stops cancerous cell division
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Name 1 downfall of monoclonal antibodies?
Monoclonal antibodies produce several side effects, more than expected therefore they are not widely used yet
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Name 6 signs that a plant is diseased
Stunted growth, discolouration, spots on leaves, areas of decay, malformed stems and leaves and the presence of pests
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Name 3 ways a plant disease can be identified
Consultation of a gardening manual, taking infected plants to a laboratory for identification of the disease, using test kits which contain monoclonal antibodies
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Describe and explain what the tobacco mosaic virus is?
TMV is a widespread plant pathogen, it infects many plants such as tomatoes, it produces a distinctive 'mosaic' pattern of discolouration on leaves which reduces chlorophyll content, it affects the plant's growth due to lack of photosynthesis
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What are aphids?
Aphids (greenfly or blackly) are small insects that feed on the phloem of a plant, taking sugars away from the plant, causing stunted growth
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What is chlorosis?
Chlorosis is caused by magnesium deficiency, stunted growth occurs because magnesium ions are need to make chlorophyll
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Name 3 physical defences plants have
Cell walls made of cellulose, a tough waxy cuticle on leaves and layers of dead cells around the stem which fall off and take pathogens with them
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Name 4 mechanical defences that plants use
Thorns, hairs, leaves that droop or curl when touched and mimicry which tricks animals into not eating them i.e white deadnettle looks similar to stinging nettle so plants don't eat it but it does not sting
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Name 2 chemical defences used by plants
Antibacterial chemicals and poison
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Card 2

Front

Define what a vector is?

Back

A vector is any organism that can spread a disease

Card 3

Front

Give an example of a viral disease found in plants

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a viral disease found in humans

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give a few examples of how communicable diseases may be transmitted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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