Infancy and childhood

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Define the term 'Growth'.
It is the increase in mass or size as a result of the increase of the number, size and complexity of cells.
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Define the term 'Development'.
It is an increase in skill and ability. It is a process of becoming mature which can apply to physical, intellectual, emotional and social aspects.
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What is a lifestage?
It is a period in life.
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What is meant by 'gross motor skills'.
It is mostly carried out by the larger muscles, for example, the arms, legs, feet or entire body.
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What is meant by 'fine motor skills'.
Requires small muscle movements. The movements are more precise e.g hands and fingers
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Define the term 'gestation'.
Gestation is the nine month period where the baby grows in the womb.
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State what is meant by 'primitive reflexes'.
These are abilities that newborn babies possess at birth. These reflexes allows the baby to be fed, move and survive.
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Provide 5 examples of gross motor skills during infancy.
Turning head, rolling over, kicking, crawling, sitting up, standing up, walking, jumping, running, or leaning forwards.
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Provide 5 examples of fine motor skills during infancy.
Grasping an object in palm, grasping using the 'pincer' grip, dropping an object, building a small tower with bricks, eating with a spoon, taking shoes off, holding a pencil to scribble, turning door knobs.
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When does an infant have bowel and bladder control?
Complete bowel and bladder control ~ 4/5 years old. Dry most of the day ~ 2 years old.
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How do infants gain intellectual development?
Through repetition, modelling and conditioning. They learn by observing and imitating what they see and hear.
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When will language development take place for infants?
First words ~ around 10 months. At ~ 12 months: a child will use around 5 words. At ~ 2 years: a child will use around 200 words.
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How does social development occur during infancy?
It occurs through socialisation, which is when individuals are taught the norms and values of society by family members. It can also occur when watching television or hearing stories.
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How does emotional development occur during infancy?
Babies will laugh, smile and enjoy being played when they are ~ 6 months. From ~ 9-12 months infants enjoy playing pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo. ~ 18 months, the infant will show a range of emotions.
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State what is meant by 'attachment'.
An attachment is a strong emotional bond between a carer and an infant
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State the three different types of attachment.
Indiscriminate attachment (0-6 months), specific attachment (7-12 months), multiple attachment (12 months +)
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Explain what the three different types of attachment involves.
Indiscriminate attachment: The baby attaches to anyone who was present at the time of birth. Specific attachment: the baby attaches to parents or carers and fears strangers. Multiple attachment: The baby attaches to close relatives and visitors
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What could happen if parents or carers fail to form an attachment with the baby?
It has a negative effect on the individual's life. They are at a risk of being bullied, being a loner, underachieving, becoming involved with crime, drugs, or prostitution, having poor relationships, self-harming, committing suicide.
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How are infants egocentric?
They are only concerned with their own emotions and feelings. Infants are usually egocentric up to the age of 3 (approximately)
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By the age of 2, infants take part in 'parallel play'. State what is meant by parallel play.
This is when children play by imitating adults or older children. This occurs around the age of 2.
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State what is meant by 'associative play'.
This is when children play alongside one another and may take an interest in what each other is doing, but they don't play with each other. This occurs around the age of 2.
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State what is meant by 'co-operative play'
This is when children play with one another, rather than just near each other. This occurs around the age of 3.
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When does infancy start and end?
From 0-2 years old.
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When does childhood start and end?
From 2-8 years old.
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State the importance of play during childhood.
Children will learn to become sociable, learn new skills, develop empathy, develop language, make decisions, improve concentration, solve problems, take responsibility, develop creativity, learn intellectually, develop memory.
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Provide five examples of gross motor skills during childhood.
Riding a bike, getting dressed, ball games, swimming, skipping, catching etc
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Provide five examples of fine motor skills during childhood.
Writing, sewing, drawing, using cutlery, typing, playing video games etc
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Identify the different types of co-ordination involved during childhood.
Hand-eye co-ordination, foot-eye co-ordination, arm-leg co-ordination, gross-fine co-ordination, whole body co-ordination
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Finish the sentence and provide at least 5 examples. 'Before the age of 5, most children will have learnt...'
Colours, textures, body parts, household objects, animals, shapes, the alphabet, months of the year, foods, vehicles, counting to 100, days of the week.
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State what is meant by 'gender constancy' and when will children experience this?
Understanding that our sex if fixed. It occurs around the age of 5.
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How does language develop during childhood?
By the age of 4: will be able to form sentences that contain 4 or more words. They will be able to use future and past tenses correctly. Around 5/6 years old: vocabulary will consist of ~ 5,000 words. By 8 years old: vocabulary increases (15,000+)
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How does emotional and social development improve during childhood?
They learn to engage in co-operative play and enjoy spending time with others. Around the age of 7, friendships are usually sex-segregated.
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State what is meant by 'modelling'.
When babies or children copy the behaviour of adults and older children.
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State what is meant by 'conditioning'.
A way of learning something, where a child or animal repeats behaviour that is rewarded and stops behaviour that is punished or ignored.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define the term 'Development'.

Back

It is an increase in skill and ability. It is a process of becoming mature which can apply to physical, intellectual, emotional and social aspects.

Card 3

Front

What is a lifestage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is meant by 'gross motor skills'.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meant by 'fine motor skills'.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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