Industry and agriculture in arid areas.

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  • Created by: hamishc
  • Created on: 29-04-16 18:30
What are agricultural opportunities in arid areas?
Oases and rivers provide opportunities for irrigated agriculture, nomadism in areas where water is scarce, hydroponics in Dubai where water is de-salinised.
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What are agricultural challenges in arid areas?
physical issues = scant unreliable rainfall, strong winds, infertile soils, remoteness, human mismanagement = resulted in desertification due to monoculture, overgrazing, deforestation, salinisation.
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What is the first area where sustainable agriculture is occurring?
Niger, northern Africa, Sahel region.
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How is this area socially sustainable?
Re-planting of trees is providing timbre and fuel and can be fed to livestock.
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How is this area environmentally sustainable?
No longer overgrazing as herd sizes have been reduced, drip water and sprinklers used for irrigation, limiting water use and encouraging recycling, growing salt tolerant plants.
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What are the farming techniques being employed?
Mulching (recycling vegetation), planting pits (holes dug which collect water), manuring (fertilisers from animals used), inter-cropping (trees planted together to add protection from the wind), bunds (low stone walls used to retain and hold water).
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What is the second area where agriculture is occurring?
Thar desert, north west India, south east Pakistan.
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Describe the eco-system/ climate in this area?
Around 50-100mm of precip come from monsoons, temps can reach 50c, (wildlife includes: Great Indian bustard, Indian gazelle, Indian ***), groundwater too deep and saline for drinking, trampling around waterholes = decrease in vegetation and soils.
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What human activity in the area has caused issues?
Mono-culture and overgrazing causing soil erosion, trees and shrubs removed for building materials, veg removal causes cun to bake soil, loss of Khejari reduces nitrates, arable agriculture increased to meet rising population.
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What are the management techniques employed in this area?
Rajathan canal brings water from Hilalayas, irrigated water used for: crops, rice, groundnut, mustard.
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What is the third area where industry is occuring?
Mining in central Australia, near Alice springs.
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What are the opportunities in this area?
Olympic Dam mine employs 3000 people, contributes $45,000,000 to south Australian government, Aboriginal groups benefit from annual rent and transport links, Roxby downs benefited from multiplier affect.
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What are the challenges in this area? (1)
Roxby downs housing prices increased (people cant afford housing), legal disputes over ownership of minerals with Aboriginals, ground water extraction will affect rare desert spring mounds (Lake Eyre), construction roads etc removes vegetation.
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What are the challenges in this area? (2)
Olympic dam is dependant on water which either comes from the coast or is absorbed from groundwater, low relief of desert area mean operations are visible from large areas (e.g. Prominent Hill, 1km hole), liquid waste damage soils, in situ mining.
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How is the area being managed?
Environmental assessment before mining takes place, height of waste dumps limited, recycling of water, spraying of weeds discourages growth.
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Card 2

Front

What are agricultural challenges in arid areas?

Back

physical issues = scant unreliable rainfall, strong winds, infertile soils, remoteness, human mismanagement = resulted in desertification due to monoculture, overgrazing, deforestation, salinisation.

Card 3

Front

What is the first area where sustainable agriculture is occurring?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is this area socially sustainable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is this area environmentally sustainable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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