IGCSE Chemistry - Industrial Processes

The Haber Process and the Contact Process

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1. What is the third stage of the Contact Process

  • Sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid
  • Sulfur trioxide reacts with ammonium to produce ammonium sulfite
  • Sulfur trioxide reacts with hydrogen to form sulfuric acid
  • Sulfur trioxide is condensed and stored in pressurised containers
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2. What is the second stage of the Contact Process?

  • Sulfur dioxide reacts with more oxygen to make sulfur trioxide
  • Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form a solution
  • Ethene forms the polymer poly(ethene)
  • Methanol and hydrogen bromide form bromomethane

3. What happens to the unreacted Ammonia from the Haber Process?

  • It is desposed of
  • It passes into a cooling tank (with the unreacted Nitrogen and Hydrogen) where the Ammonia is liquefied and removed into pressurised storage vessels.
  • It passes into a chimney where it is released into the atmosphere
  • It is separated from the unreacted Nitrogen and Hydrogen by fractional distillation

4. What is the majority of sulfuric acid used for?

  • Detergents by reacting with the -OH molecules forming a long chain molecule
  • Fertiliser by reacting with ammonia/ammonium hydroxide to make ammonium sulfate
  • Used as an acid in classrooms and laboratories for experiments
  • Making paints - sulfuric acid reacts with ilmenite in one of the stages of obtaining white pigment

5. What is the process of making Ammonia from the raw materials Nitrogen and Hydrogen?

  • The Haber Process
  • The Contact Process
  • The Ammonia Process


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