Industrial Enzymes (5.2.2)

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What are the features of enzymes that make them useful in industrial processes?
Specificity. The temperatures they work at.
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How do enzymes' specificity make them useful?
Enzymes catalyse specific reactions.
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Why do the temperatures enzymes work at make them useful?
Most enzymes function well at relatively low temperatures. This saves money on fuel and heating costs for reactions.
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Describe the extraction of lactase from E.coli.
Downstream processing. Ecoli fermented by batch culture. Cells harvested- centrifugation. Disintegration-cells resuspended in buffer. opened to release enzymes. Enzyme extracted, concentrated. Centrifugation-removes cell debri. Enzyme ultrafiltration
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What does immobilising mean?
Enzyme is fixed/held in place so it doesn't mix freely with the substrate.
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Give 3 advantages of using immobilised enzymes.
Enzymes immediately available for reuse- useful for continuous processes. Enzymes not mixed in with products- purification costs lower. Often more stable and less likely to denature.
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Give 3 disadvantages of using immobilised enzymes.
Immobilised enzymes can be less active. Overall reaction rate may be lower as enzymes don't mix freely with substrates. Initial setup costs are more expensive.
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Why is it good to immobilise enzymes?
Enzymes are expensive and this is the best way to reuse them.
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What are the four methods used to immobilise enzymes?
Adsorption. Covalent bonding. Entrapment. Membrane separation.
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What is adsorption?
Enzyme molecules mixed with immobilising support and join to it because of hydrophobic interactions and ionic links. Can give very high reaction rates, but enzymes can become detached as the bonding forces aren't very strong.
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What is covalent bonding?
Enzyme molecules covalently bonded to a support, often covalently linking enzymes together and to an insoluble material. This method doesn't immobilise a large quantity of enzyme, but binding is very strong.
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What is entrapment?
Enzymes may be trapped in a gel bead. They are trapped in their natural state. But reaction rates can be reduced because substrate molecules need to get through the trapping barrier.
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What is membrane separation?
Enzymes may be physically separated from the substrate mixture by a partially permeable membrane. Substrate molecules are small enough to pass through the membrane and product molecules are small enough to pass back through.
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Card 2

Front

How do enzymes' specificity make them useful?

Back

Enzymes catalyse specific reactions.

Card 3

Front

Why do the temperatures enzymes work at make them useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the extraction of lactase from E.coli.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does immobilising mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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