Individual Differences Studies

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Spearman
Discovered Positive manifold, two factor theory and devised the theory of 'G', a general intelligence that effects all different aspects of IQ tests
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Cattell
Split 'G' into Fluid and Crystallised intelligence. Fluid is the ability to learn novel things and Crystallised is that what we already know and application of this
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Shallice and Burgess (1991)
Multiple Errands Test. Patients with Prefrontal Cortex Damage, crystallised memory in tact but fluid severely impaired
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Duncan (2000)
Increased bloodflow to PFC during high 'G' tasks
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Gilbert (2006)
Areas of the PFC could be specialised for each ability.
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Haim (2008)
Emotions in old age. Less physical confidence but more mental and social confidence. More accepting of bad things, do not take things for granted
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Chase (1991)
Students can attain 'world class' memory after strategy training
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Salthouse (2004)
Speed, reasoning and memory decrease but vocal continues to increase, crossword ability.
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Salthouse (2004)
Not all grossly incapable. Motivation, adaptation, not pushed to IQ test limits and not as many novel problems encountered.
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Rabbitt (1993)
"Does it all go together when it goes?" People become more different, larger SD. Illness can affect, type 2 diabetes can cause reduced cognitive ability
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Perrson (2006)
Some maintain white matter density into their 70's. Likelihood of this increases if they had better cognitive function to start with. Some areas of decay manifest differently and do not have as visible effects
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Nilson (1997)
Certain components of memory seem to decay at different rates.
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Safto (2007)
Less grey matter density in old age. Reaction time, IQ and memory decreases
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Hermstien and Murray (1994)
The Bell Curve Debate. Main assumptions are that IQ tests test 'G' and this measures what we describe as intelligence. Heritability is 40-80% and tests are not bias against race. Conclusions that money should be given to white families.
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Stenberg (1985)
Concepts of intelligence over cultures. USA = Practical problem solving & verbal ability. China = Interpersonal intelligence and Modesty
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Vanvalen (1974)
Brain size and IQ r=.33
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Ho (1980)
Black people have smaller heads than White people
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Boston and Gilbert (2007)
Dietary effects. Adult females starved for 16 hours. significantly slower reactions, difficulty of rule shift questions. Unrelated to anxiety or BMI. Sig correlation between weight concerns and effect of fasting.
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Bauchard (2003)
Genetic Basis to intelligence, MZ = 0.86, DZ = 0.60
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Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study (1992)
Black children still at a disadvantage on IQ tests
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Murdoch (2007)
Nazi germany, sterilisation on the grounds of 'feeble mindedness'
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Jaccoby (2006)
3.6 points higher
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Maccoby & Jacklyn (1974)
Men better at spacial tests, Women better at verbal tests.
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Choi & Silverman (2002)
Testosterone and orienteering. Use of NESW directions correlated with testosterone levels
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Entwhistle (2006)
Boys allowed to roam neighbourhood more
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Furnham (2005)
Men feel their intelligence is superior and this is passed onto children
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Spencer & Quinn (2007)
Induced stereotype threat to Women about maths and gave them test, they did worse in ST thret conditions
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Clark & Hatfield (2002)
Differences in sexual behaviour. 70% of men responded positively to blunt sexual advance, 0% of women said yes.
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Klein (1980)
Oral Optimissim vs Pessimism. Many hypothesis tested, variety of success. Optimists do seem to prefer milky foods but vegetarians do not differ and dentists are not pessimists.
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Lewis (1992)
Oral pessimism does correlate to depression in students
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Psychologist (2000)
Mixed results on empirical testing
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Eysenck (1952)
Main assumptions formed on a sample of neurotic jewish ladies and no data formed. Also, he would interview 4 - 5 patients a day, then make notes. According to own theories he would forget that which didn't fit hypothesis.
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Costa & McCrea (1991)
Criticisms of Jung. Poor predictive values, bi-modality predicted is not shown and it predicts interactions that are not found in empirical data
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Goldberg (2000)
The Big 5 theories are found across cultures
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Caspi (1999)
Big 5 across lifespan
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Block (1995)
Criticisms of big 5. Based on lexical approach which has its own limitations
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Lynam (2009)
ABCU+ are 3x more likely to become adult psychopaths than ABCU-
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Blair (2008)
ABCU+ cognition, poor recognition of anger, fear and sadness, no cost of aggression. Reduced skin reactivity
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Marsh (2008)
ABCU+ Brain, no amygdala response to fearful faces, rick taking
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Viding (2012)
ABCU- Brain, subliminally shown fearful faces, enhances amygdala perception, continious with
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Viding (2005)
ABCU+ large proportion genetic ABCU- is equally environment and genetic
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Johnstone (1989)
AB sometimes better after divorce, not exposed to stressful environment and parenting relaxes
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Jaffee (2003)
AB lower is AB dad is in prison
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Cassidy (1983)
Internal working model of attachment. Caregiver a base to explore rest of world, shapes how we view relationships in the future
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Feerson (2010)
Insecure-disorganised more likely to become psychopaths, learn to look after selves, no secure base
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Thornberry (2009)
Children of AB parents more likely to be AB, SLT or genetics?
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Bandura (2001)
Children watched an adult playing in an aggressive way towards a bobo doll, all copied this behaviour and it spread to other actions of violence such as playing with toy guns.
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Scott (2001)
Clinical trials, worst 1% of AB. 60% made significant improvements
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Waltham Forest (1996)
10% of population is left handed and more men than women
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Porac (1977)
Studied pictures and sculptures, steady over time always about 10%
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Plato vs Artisole
Taught to use right vs right is superior
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McManus (1992)
Genetic model of handedness, inclusion of chance gene. 40+ loci
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Paul Broca
Left temporal lobe, language
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Daneman & Cooper (1980)
Working memory predicts reading comprehension
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Jaeggi (2008-2010)
Training of WM increased IQ
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Hitch (1991)
Children and WM. Those with low WM tended to be poor at maths or readings and be dreamy and difficult to instruct. Many diagnosed with ADHD
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Chase (1981)
Students could attain world class memory after strategy training
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Maguire (2003)
Mmemory champs, no brain differences but they used more mnemonics, associations and method of loci. Increased activation in brain during recall
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Craik and Lockart (1972)
Levels of processing, more likely to remember is processed deeply, ie semantics, did it fit in the end of a sentance
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Card 2

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Cattell

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Split 'G' into Fluid and Crystallised intelligence. Fluid is the ability to learn novel things and Crystallised is that what we already know and application of this

Card 3

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Shallice and Burgess (1991)

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Card 4

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Duncan (2000)

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Card 5

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Gilbert (2006)

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