Individual Differences

Define gambling
Staking money or something of financial value in the hope of winning.
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Define technological addictions
non-chemical behavioural addictions which involve human-machine interactions. A behavioural addiction refers to a repetitive activity which becomes the single most important thing in a persons life. Removal of the behaviour creates withdrawal symptom
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What is normative decision theory?
gamblers make rational and predictable decisions about the choices that face them. This doesn't really apply to gamblers as the decisions they make are irrational.
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What are heuristics?
A common sense set of rules that are used to try and solve problems, based on past experience.
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What does the Heuristics model say about gambling?
Gamblers used the wrong heuristic in a given situation and the way that they are thinking is slightly distorted.
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What are the 6 cognitive distortions of gamblers?
Illusion of control, flexible attributions, representativeness, availability bias illusory correlations, fixation on absaloute frequency.
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What was the aim of griffith's study?
To examine the factors & variables relating to cognition and the gambling processes. The investugation aimed to examine whether the skills involved in Fruit machine gambling are 'actual' or 'percieved' by comparing the success of R and non R gamblers
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What method was used to monitor cognitive activity during gambling?
Thinking aloud.
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What is the independent variable in Griffith's study?
Whether an individual was a regular or non regular gambler and whether they were assigned to the thinking aloud condition or not.
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What was the Dependant variable in Griffith's study?
The behaviours and verbellisations of the gamblers.
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What was hypothesis 1 in Griffith's study?
There would be no difference between the skill levels of regular or non-regular fruit machine gamblers.
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What was hypothesis 2 in Griffith's study?
Regular gamblers would produce more irrational verbalisations than non regular gamblers.
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What was hypothesis 3 in Griffith's study?
Regular gamblers would report themselves as being more skill orientated than non regular gamblers.
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What was hypothesis 4 in Griffith's study?
Thinking aloud participants would take longer to complete the task than non thinking aloud participants.
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Where was Griffith's study carried out?
In an amusement arcade to increase ecological validity.
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Who were the regular gamblers and how were they recruited?
By a snowball method from a man who was known to the author, 29 males + 1 female, 15 thinking aloud and 15 non thinking aloud, average age 21years 6months.
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Who were the non-regular gamblers and how were they recruited?
By a poster advert in the local university and college campuses, 15 male and 15 female, 15 thinking aloud, 15 non thinking loud, average age 25years 3months.
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What was the method used by Griffiths?
Each participant was given £3 to gamble on a fruit machine which cost 10p a go (so each ppt had 30 free plays). Participants were told to try and stay on the machine for a minimum of 60 plays then were given a choice of keeping winnings or playing on
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What were the Thinking aloud ppts in Griffiths told?
Not to censor anything and to keep talking as continuously as possible. They were not required to speak in complete sentences or justify their thoughts.
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What were the behaviours in Griffiths study?
Total play, total time, play rate, end stake, wins, win rate (time), win rate (plays).
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How were the thinking aloud responses recorded?
Using a lapel microphone and then transcribed within 24hours.
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What did Griffiths participants take part in at the end of the study?
A semi-structured interview in which they were asked about their experience of playing the machine and, in particular, their perception of the skill involves and their personal level of skill.
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What significant differences did Griffith's find?
Regular gamblers had a higher playing rate, regular gamblers who thought aloud had a lower win rate in plays.
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What were the results of Griffith's study?
No difference in the skill levels between regular and non regular fruit machine gamblers.
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Compare the irrational verballisations of regular and non-regular gamblers.
14% of the regular gamblers made irrational comments compared to 2.5% of the non regular gamblers.
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What conclusions did Griffiths come to?
The difference between regular gamblers and non regular gamblers is related to how they deal cognitively with the idea of skill in relation to fruit machine gambling. "irrational gambling bias" can be modified by allowing them to listen to recordings
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What were the general aims of Rosenhanne?
To test the hypothesis that the classification system used by psychiatrists to diagnose whether someone is sane or insane was not reliable.
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What was the aim of Rosenhanne's first experiment?
To see if sane individuals can be diagnosed as insane and admitted to a psychiatric hospital.
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Who were the participants in Rosenhanne's experiment?
Eight pseudopateints, 5 males (including rosenhan) and 3 females.
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What hospitals were used in Rosenhanne's study?
selected in 12 different locations and ranged from modern, old, well staffed and poorly staffed institutions.
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What was Rosenhanne's IV?
The symptoms of the pseudopatients/
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What was Rosenhanne's DV?
Their diagnosis
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What were the diagnosis given to the pseudopatients?
11 with schizofrenia and 1 with manic depression (bipolar)
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What is a type 2 error?
Diagnosing a sane person as insane
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What is a type 1 error?
Diagnosing an insane person as sane
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What was the aim of rosenhannes second experiment?
To see if the the insane can be diagnosed as sane.
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What were the findings from rosenhannes second experiment?
19 were thought by a psychatrist + member of staff to be false, 23 by at least one psychiatrist and 41 by at last 2 members of staff.
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What is the effect of Psychodiagnostic labelling?
An insane person is always insane, as a sane person is always sane.
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how much time did pateints pend with psychiatrists, psychologists etc each day?
Averaged at less than 7 minutes a day.
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How did the patients in Rosenhannes study experience powerlessness and depersonalisation?
not seen as creidible witnesses for abuse, lack of personal hygiene eg no toilet doors.
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define schizofrenia
a mental disorder marked by some or all of the following sympotoms; hallucinations, incoherant speech, innapropriate emotions or lack of emotions. psychosis (difficulty relating to reality)
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Define Multiple personality Disorder
a disorder where more than one personality exists in the same individual and each individual personality is relatively stable and integrated.
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What was the aim of T&C
To provide an account of the case of an individual considered to have MPD, based on the psychotherapeutic treatment of a 35 year old patient, eve white.
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What method did T&C use?
Psychotherapeutic interviews and occassional hypnosis, Fmsily mmbers were interviewed to corroborate some of eves stories.
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Why was Eve reffered to T&C?
severe and blinding headaches. occassional black outs. relatively unexceptional marital conflicts and personal frustrations, amnesia for a recent trip.
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What was the significance of the letter from Eve?
Written in a confident hand but at the bottom of the page there was a childish post script written in different hand writing. On the next visit, Eve denied sending the lletter.
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How did eve black first appear?
Duruing EW's interviewsshe became distressed and asked if hearing an imaginary voice meant that she was insane, she suddenly put both hands on her head then dropped them and said "whats up Doc"
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Describe Eve Black's character?
confident, relaxed, playful, more attractive, childish daredevil air, erotically mischievous glance, irresponsible, shallow, looking for pleasure and excitement.
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How many hours was Eve interviewed for?
Over 14 months, over 100 hours.
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Describe one of Eve's childhood traumas.
Being punished for going into the wooods but denying she was there. During therapy EB admitted to being in the woods but went back inside in time for EW to receive the punishment.
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Why did EW get beaten by her husband?
EB spent so much money on clothing that the family were plunged into debt and she went out drinking.
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What did EW's family thonk about her unpleasent behavior, harshness and occasional acts of violence?
They were attributed to unaccountable fits of temper in a woman who was habitually gentle and considerate.
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What did projective tests show about EB and EW?
EW had an IQ of 110 whereas EB only 104, EW's memory function was far superior, EW's rorsarch test was repressive wheres EB's was regressive.
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What is meant by Repressive?
anxious, obsessive-compulsive, rigidity, inability to deal with hostility.
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What is ment by Regressive?
Much healthier but with a hysterical tendency.
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What was the goal of T&C?
To enable Eve to have only one personality but EB couldnt be hypnotised and wouldn't cooperate, she admitted to causing headaches and erasing EW's memories.
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What happened as EW gained more control over EB?
EW began to do well at work and also left her husband. The headaches, voices and blackouts disappeared and all seemed to be going well.
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What happened 8 months after EW began to improve?
Headaches started to recur and she experienced more blackouts, EB denied responsibility and said that she too experienced these blackouts. EW's general state of mind deteriorated and confinement was considered.
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How did Jane appear?
EW appeared to relax into a sleepy state, after a while her eyes opened, she looked around the room and in a husky voice said "who are you?". This new character had full awareness of the other two yet neither of them could be aware of her.
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What did EEG readings show about the 3 personalities?
EW and Jane showed 11 cycles per second whilst EB showed 12.5 cycles per second.
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What conclusion did T&C come to?
They offered no explanation, simply their observations and request for further research into MPD.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define technological addictions


non-chemical behavioural addictions which involve human-machine interactions. A behavioural addiction refers to a repetitive activity which becomes the single most important thing in a persons life. Removal of the behaviour creates withdrawal symptom

Card 3


What is normative decision theory?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are heuristics?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the Heuristics model say about gambling?


Preview of the front of card 5
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