Individual differences in health and intelligence

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  • Created by: Caitlinl
  • Created on: 24-05-17 11:12
What is health?
Not discrete categories, varying on a continuum;
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How does the WHO define health?
"State of complete physical, social and mental well-being, not merely an absence of illness"
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What are the causal links of personality, health and illness?
Direct link if personality traits are considered biologically based. Ind diffs - causal role in health and illness and adjustment to illness (psychosomatic illness)
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What are the correlational links between personality, health and illness?
Same biological processes might underpin personality traits and illness outcomes (Matthews et al. 2003)
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What is the link between personality, behaviours and increased risk?
Certain personality traits lead individuals to engage in particular behaviour that influence their health/increased risk of illness (Sensation seeking personality)
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How can personality change as a result of illness?
Having an illness itself changes who we are; having a chronic condition (e.g. arthritis) - being in pain all the time - grumpy
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What is the link between cardiovascular disease and personality?
Causes 17.4 million deaths worldwide in 2005; 198000 deaths every year in the UK; Most costly in terms of health care provisions; 1st warning sign Angina
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What did Oster (1910) have to say about angina?
A man who is keen and ambitious and always at full speed ahead
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What did Rosenman (1959) have to say about health and personality?
Physical factors could not predict accurately who would develop the condition and only after additional personality factors did prediction rates rise; identified behaviour patterns (type A and type B)
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What are the characteristics of type A personality?
Twice as likely to develop CVD; more stressed etc.
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What did Friedman and Rosenman (1950) find?
Type A men twice as likely to develop CVD; no effect of type a personality on mortality rates
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What did Jenkins et al (1974) do?
Developed a SR measurement of type A/B behaviour (Jenkins Activity Survey)
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What did Framingham find?
CVD significantly higher in type A men; this was less clear in the 1980s
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What was found in the Honolulu heart programme?
No relationship found
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What was found in the British Heart Foundation study (Johnson, 1987; Shaper et al, 1991; Wannamethes et al, 1997)
No significant relationship found
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What are the most common individually different reactions to illness?
Associated with anxiety and depression - illness conceptualised as stressful life events and consider how we deal stress
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How do we conceptualise stress?
Non-specific responses to noxious/threatening stimuli; Sense - body's defensive actions to stress as general adaptive systems (alarm response; response resistance and exhaustion stage)
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What are the consequences of stress?
Affects the way we behave and may result in us taking less care of ourselves and becoming ill
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What did Cartwright et al (2013) find?
Caring for the elderly has been shown over a 4 year period to be at a significantly increased risk of dying
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Why does stress reduce health?
We have a finite capacity to deal with stress, so prolonged stress means reduced health
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How can physically ill patients develop mental health problems?
They can develop anxiety and depression as a response to their illness
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Why does this happen?
Continually worrying about their health - outlook becomes gloomier over time, as you begin to anticipate the worst
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What did Lopez and Murray (1998) find?
Depression is the single highest cause of disability in the world
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What types of symptoms of clinical depression can be seen?
Emotional, cognitive, somatic and behavioural symptoms
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What is depression associated with according to Tennen et al (1999)?
Slower recovery from cardiac problems and increased likelihood of a subsequent heart attack
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What did Green (1985) and Dimatteo et al (2000) find?
Depressed indivuduals are less likely to comply with treatment regimes
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Where can it be said that anxiety originated?
Adaptive in the context of health
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How have distinctions between anxiety and clinical anxiety made?
Disorder is based on the DSM 5 (recognises different subtypes of anxiety disorder) and ca be defined in terms of negative emotional responses; more patients experience significant levels of anxious mood related to health
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How did Barlow (2002) characterise anxiety on a physiological level?
Physiological level - state of tension and chronic overarousal; likely to want to avoid dangerous situations;
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How did Barlow (2002) characterise anxiety on a cognitive level?
Negative mood, worry about possible future events; highly anxious individuals have a higher risk of developing physical illness
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What can this lead to?
Higher anxiety can lead to being a hypochondriac; both anxiety and hypochondria can be related to high levels of narcissism; neuroticism = more somatic complaints - sig psych components
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What is social anxiety?
Social anxiety= describe individuals who fears failing to do their best in front of others, in social situations and events
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What is social phobia?
Individuals who are insecure in unknown company
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What did Mattick and Clark (1997) find?
Social anxiety is social interaction anxiety - dealing with people or social situations
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How did Heckelman and Schneir (1965) define SAD?
Fear of performing or showing yourself up
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What are the characteristics of SAD according to Heckelman and Schneir (1965)?
Embarrassment, humiliation and shame and becomes fearful through anticipation of future social encounter
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How does the DSM 5 define SAD?
Shows significant fear of social situations in which embarrassment/rejection may occur
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What are the DSM characteristics of SAD?
Experience immediate anxiety driven physical reactions to feared social situations; realise fears are greatly exaggerated, but powerless to stop it; often avoid at all costs
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What did Henderson and Zimbardo (2001) do?
Identify 3 common ways SAD is defined
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What are the 3 ways of defining SAD according to Henderson and Zimbardo (2001)
Generalised social anxiety disorder; performance social anxiety disorder; avoidant personality disorder
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What are the symptoms of SAD according to Markway and Markway (1992; 2003)?
Cognitive symptoms; physical reaction; behavioural avoidance
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How is shyness defined?
Refers loosely for varying learning and degrees of social theory; documented as a symptom of social anxiety
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What is the clinical definition of shyness?
Discomfort/inhibition in interpersonal situations - this discomfort has an effect on our personal and professional goals; excessive self-focus - preoccupation with own thoughts, feelings and physical reactions
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What did Zimbardo (1988) find?
The number of levels are different, can be dispositional or chronic- found symptoms triggered by a variety of cues
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What was the aim of Crozier (2000)?
Sex differences in shyness - the cultural burden of shyness - more often in men
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What did Cheek (1996) find?
Shy individuals are less assertive and less friendly than others - not viewed as negatively as they think; less profound consequences that affect quality of life
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What did Zimbardo (1977) find?
Shyness, personality traits, extra/introversion; shyness and introversion distinguishable and extroverts can still be shy
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What did Bernado and Carducci (1999) find?
Introverts often confused as being shy, possess social skills and confidence to interact - choose not to
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How did Miller (1995; 1996) define embarrassment?
Self-conscious feeling individuals get after realising they have done something stupid; symptom of social anxiety/part of shyness -independent construct
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What is the dramaturigc model (Silver, Sabini and Parrot, 1987)?
Embarrassment flustered uncertainty that follows a negative public performance - Concern for public image accompanies embarrassment - does not cause it
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What is the social evaluation model?
Concern for what others are thinking that holds the key to embarrassment; individual concerned about others opinions to feel embarrassed
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What is the situational self-esteem model?
Negative self-evaluations; set in motion further events causing embarrassment; negative self-evaluations do not cause embarrassment alone -triggers that mean individuals judge themselves poorly
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What is the personal standards model (Babcock, 1988)?
Embarrassment occurs when an individual fears they have failed in standards of behaviour for themselves; happy with standards. not embarrassing
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How does the WHO define health?


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What are the correlational links between personality, health and illness?


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What is the link between personality, behaviours and increased risk?


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