In what ways do countries vary in their economic development and quality of life? Part 2

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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 01-04-14 10:31
What is an issue with the economic development stairway?
Highly subjective
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What groups of countries is there a problem in categorising?
OPECs and FCCs
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What is the issue with the classification of RICs and NICs?
Vague distinction
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What can be said about the distinction between LEDC and LDC on the economic development stairway?
It is difficult to determine what is the critical threshold that separates them
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Why is the classification of countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, South Africa and Turkey?
Are they really MEDCs?
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What is the benefit of the classification based on per capita GNI?
Seems more objective and the values used to distinguish the four income groups are updated yearly
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What is one method of the economic development stairway?
LDC,LEDC,RIC,NIC,MEDC
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What is a more useful way of using the economic development stairway?
Low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, high income
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What are some surprises in the high-income group of countries?
Includes a number of Caribbean countries
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What are some Caribbean countries that are classed as high income?
Antigua, Barbados, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago
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Why is it thought provoking that Caribbean countries such as Barbados are classed as high income?
Few would claim that these are MEDCs
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Why are some Caribbean countries in the high income groups?
As they are popular tourist destinations and second home locations
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What provides money to Trinidad that raises its wealth?
Valuable oil resources
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What can be said about Antigua, Barbados, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago?
All have much foreign investment but few native residents share in the wealth that the World Bank have recorded
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Why is it surprising to see India in the low income group?
Is being hailed as one of the fastest industrialising countries in teh world
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What dilutes the per capita GNI figure for India?
Huge population
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What is a major inequality in India today?
Only a relatively small percentage of India's population is benefitting from the current economic boom
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Why does the inclusion of Zimbabwe in the low income group serve as a warning?
Less than 50 years ago it was one of the most prosperous African nations and is now bankrupt
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What are two other measures that can be used to show the global pattern of economic development?
Tertiary/service sector and also average annual rate of economic growth
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What is the importance of the tertiary or service sector in measures economic development?
As becomes more developed is becoming increasingly important and eventually dominant
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How can the tertiary sector be used to help determine levels of economic development?
Measure the sector in terms of either its percentage of the working population or percentage contribution to country's GDP
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What can the average annual rate of economic growth give a crude indication of?
Rate of economic growth
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What must be considered to make the average annual rate of economic growth a useful figure for comparison?
Calculation of the average needs to take into account the rate of inflation
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What can a high rate of inflation make the annual rate of growth in per capita GNI look?
More impressive than it really is
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When inflation has been taken into account, what is it appropriate to refer to?
Real economic growth
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What is the definition of real economic growth?
The economic growth rate adjusted for inflation
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Between 1995 and 2005 where was one of the highest rates of real economic growth registered?
Chile
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How much real economic growth was registered by Chile between 1995 and 2005?
10.2%
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What was the average annual decline of Zimbabwe from 1995-2005?
Average annual decline of 6.5%
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Why is quality of life difficult to define?
It has much to do with individual perception and feelings
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What has the psychological side of quality of life got to do with?
Feelings - e.g. satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment and security
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What is the physical dimension of quality of life?
Diet, housing, mobility etc
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What are socioeconomic factors in quality of life?
Employment prospects, access to services, education and leisure
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Quality of Life - Physical
Diet, housing, clean environment, mobility
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Quality of Life - Social
Leisure, family and friends, welfare services, education
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Quality of Life - Economic
Secure job, income, affluence, standard of living
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Quality of Life - Psychological
Satisfaction, happiness, health, security
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What are quality of life indicators for housing?
Dwelling floor space per capita, percentage of dwellings with: running water/electricity/indoor toilet/owner-occupied, percentage of income spent on housing
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What are quality of life indicators for education?
Percentage of GDP spent on education, average number of years in full time education, full time students per 1000 people, literacy rate, number of full time teachers per 1000 people, percentage of school leavers going on to higher education
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What aer quality of life indicators for health?
Infant mortality rate, life expectancy, percentage of GDP spent on health, doctors per 1000 people, hospital beds per 1000 people, daily intake of calories
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What is quality of life thought of as?
Outcome or product of economic developmetn
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To measure quality of life what must be focused on?
, must focus on the outer strands of the development cable
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What are the outer strands of the development cable?
Demographic, social, cultural, environmental, political and cultural
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What is a positive about the demographic, social and environmental indicators for health, education and housing?
Readily measurable with data available for many countries on regional and local levels which can show variation within countries
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As quality of life has many different facets, what is there merit in?
Using multivariate measures to assess it
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To date, what is the most widely accepted multivariate measure to assess quality of life?
Human Development Index
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What is a flaw with the HDI?
It is only based on three variables
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When was the HDI devised?
1990
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What three weightings does the HDI take into account, giving each equal weightig?
Income per capita, adult literacy and life expectancy
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What values are recorded for each HDi variable?
The highest and lowest values recorded
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How is the HDI calculated?
Interval between highest and lowest values given score of 1 with value of each country scored on scale of 0-1. HDI is average score of three variables, expressed 0-1/
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What does the HDI scale 0-1 represent?
Worst to best
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What HDI index to wealthy MEDCs have?
Index approaching 0.999
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What HDI index to poorer countries range down to?
Less than 0.300
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How were the countries for the case studies chosen?
Middle course sample - one country from each World Bank income grouping except upper middle income one
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What are the case studies for varying levels of economic development and quality of life?
Bangladesh, China and Japan
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What does Bangladesh represent?
Low income LEDC grouping as well as Third World
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What does China represent?
Second World, lower-middle income country
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How can China's economy be described?
Early phases of industrialisation, transitional
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What does Japan represent?
The First World and the high income MEDC group
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What does the economic data about Bangladesh, China and Japan show?
The sample countries show strong contrasts
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What is important about the geographical location of Bangladesh, China and Japan?
Are drawn from the world's most economically dynamic region
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What is the world's most economically dynamic region?
Asia
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In terms of per capita GNI what is Bangladesh's rank?
180th
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How many countries were ranked according to per capita GNI?
209 countries
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What is China ranked according to per capita GNI?
129th
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What is Japan ranked according to per capita GNI?
19th respectively
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Why is the fact that Japan ranks 14th for per capita GNI surprising?
Japan is the second largest economy in the world behind the USA
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Why is it surprising that China is ranked 129th for per capita GNI?
It's economy is now the third largest in the world
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What does China's economy size reflect?
Geographic and demographic size
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Although the significance of the tertiary sector is usually a good measure for development it is not in Bangladesh- why
Primary sector is largely conccerned with subsistence faring and therefore contributes little to GDP, manufacturing is only just beginning to expand, many people earn a living in the informal sector
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What is the informal sector?
Activities that are not officially recognised but are undertaken by poor people in order to survive
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What are examples of informal sector jobs?
Providing low cost transport and jobs in workshops
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What are general benefits of economic development?
Increased access to education and higher rates of adult literacy, wider provision of health services, safe water and sewage disposal, more food security, greater life expectancy, lower infant mortality
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What is difficulty about determining housing conditions as a method of seeing development?
Apart from access to safe water and sewage disposal there are no easily available measures
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What is it important to remember when looking at quality of life measures?
income inequality
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If the Gini coefficient is high what does this mean?
The higher the value the greater the inequality
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What is important to recognise in the economic sectors of China?
Secondary sector is crucial to 'newly industrialising' country
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What is primary production?
Acquiring raw materials
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What is secondary production?
Manufacturing and assembly
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What is tertiary production?
Services sector
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Where in the three country examples, is the Gini coefficient greatest?
In China
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What is a downside of the high income inequalities in China?
Incidence of poverty and malnutrition even in scenario of economic growth
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How has China worked to reduce poverty and malnutrition:?
Through rigorous campaigns
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Do problems of poverty and malnutrition continue in Japan?
yes
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What does a Gini-coefficient score of 0 mean?
Perfect equality
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What does a Gini-coefficient of 1 mean?
One person takes all
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What was China's Gini-coefficient in 2012?
0.474
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What do cynics of China say about their Gini co-efficient?
True inequality is much higher
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What was Japan's Gini-coefficient in the late 2000s after transfers and taxes?
0.329
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What was Japan's Gini-coefficient in the mid 1980s after taxes and transfers?
0.304
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What is the downside of the increased consumer spending that is the outcome of economic development?
Raised levels of obesity and alcohol consumption
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The greater the inequality of income (gap between rich and poor), what happens to incidence of crime and prison population?
Generally, larger prison population and higher incidence of crime
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What was Bangladesh's population in 2005?
144.3 million
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What was China's population in 2005?
1306.3 million
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What was Japan's population in 2005?
127.4 million
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What wsa the GNI per capita for Bangladesh in 2004?
$1980USD
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What was the GNI per capita for China in 2004?
5530 USD
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What was the GNI per capita for Japan in 2004?
30,040 USD
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What was the average annual growth in GDP per capita for Bangladesh from 1990-2002?
3.1%
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What was the average annual growth in GDP per capita for China from 1990-2002?
8.6%
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What was the average annual growth in GDP per capita for Japan in 1990-2002?
1%
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What percentage of Bangladesh's GDP was agriculture in 2004?
21.2%
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What percentage of China's GDP was agriculture in 2004?
13.8%
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What percentage of Japan's GDP was agriculture in 2004?
1.3%
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What percentage of Bangladesh's GDP was industry in 2004?
27.1%
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What percentage of China's GDP was industry in 2004?
52.9%
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What percentage of Japan's GDP was industry in 2004?
24.7%
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What percentage of Bangladesh's GDP was services in 2004?
51.7%
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What percentage of China's GDP was services in 2004?
33.3%
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What percentage of Japan's GDP was services in 2004?
74.1%
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What is population density recorded in?
Persons per km2
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What was the population density in 2005 of Bangladesh?
1002
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What was the population density in 2005 of China?
136
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What was the population density in 2005 of Japan?
337
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What was the average annual population change in 2005 of Bangladesh?
2.1%
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What was the average annual population change in 2005 of China?
0.6%
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What was the average annual population change in 2005 of Japan?
0.1%
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What percentage of total population in Bangladesh (2005) were urban?
25%
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What percentage of total population in China (2005) were urban?
41%
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What percentage of total population in Japan (2005) were urban?
66%
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What was the life expectancy in 2005 in Bangladesh?
62 years
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What was the life expectancy in 2005 in China?
72 yeasr
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What was the life expectancy in 2005 in Japan?
81 years
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How can food intake be recordeD?
Calories per capita per day
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What was the food intake in 2003 in Bangladesh?
2205 calories
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What was the food intake in 2003 in China?
2951 calories
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What was the food intake in 2003 in Japan?
2760.9 calories
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How many people were there per doctor in Bangladesh in 2003?
4348
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How many people were there per doctor in China in 2003?
610
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How many people were there per doctor in Japan in 2003?
495
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What percentage of adults in Bangladesh in 2003 were illiterate?
57%
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What percentage of adults in China in 2003 were illiterate?
14%
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What percentage of adults in Japan in 2003 were illiterate?
1%
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How many motor vehicles per thousand people were there in Bangladesh in 2002?
1.5
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How many motor vehicles per 1000 people in China in 2002?
10.2
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How many motor vehicles per 1000 people in Japan in 2002?
566.8
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How mny people per thousand in 2003 in Bangladesh had internet access?
2
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How many people per thousand in 2003 in China had internet access?
63
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How many people per thousand in 2003 in Japan had internet access?
483
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How can energy produced be recorded?
Tonnes of oil equivilant per capita
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What was energy produced in 2002 in Bangladesh?
0.07 tonnes of oil equiv. per capita
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How much energy was produced in 2002 in China?
0.81 tonnes of oil equiv. per capita
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How much energy was produced in 2002 in Japan?
0.84 tonnes of oil equiv per capita
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How much energy was consumed in 2002 in Bangladesh?
0.1 tonne of oil equiv per capita
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How much energy was consumed in 2002 in China?
0.83 tonnes of oil equiv per capita
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How much energy was consumed in 2002 in Japan?
4.31 tonnes of oil equiv per capita
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How much CO2 emissions per capita in Bangladesh in 2003?
0.24 metric tonnes
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How much CO2 emmissions per capita in China in 2003?
2.72 metric tonnes
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How much CO2 emmissions per capita in Japan in 2003?
2.98 metric tonnes
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What was the HDI for Bangladesh in 2002?
0.509
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What was the HDI for China in 2002?
0.745
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What was the HDI for Japan in 2002?
0.938
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What was the Gender Development Index for Bangladesh in 2002?
0.499
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What was the Gender Development Index for China in 2002?
0.741
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What was the Gender Development Index for Japan in 2002?
0.932
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What must be remembered about the statistics used?
They are the averagwes for a country and often hide significant contrasts or inequalities within countries
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Gini Coefficient
A statistical measure of the degree of correspondence between two sets of percentage frequencies
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What is the Gini coefficient frequently used as?
Means of assessing the degree to which a given distribution of data differs from a uniform one
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How is the Gini coefficient expressed?
From 0 to 100
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Card 2

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What groups of countries is there a problem in categorising?

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Card 3

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What is the issue with the classification of RICs and NICs?

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Card 4

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What can be said about the distinction between LEDC and LDC on the economic development stairway?

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Card 5

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Why is the classification of countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, South Africa and Turkey?

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