In what ways and how effectively was England governed under Henry VII?

'Great chain of Being'
Everyone expected to stay in their specific place in the strict hierarchy of society-all ranks in society had to cooperate
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Did Parliament have a minor role in political life during the reign of Henry VII?
Only called 7 times, longest was for 3 months in his 24 year reign, met infrequently and usually not for more than a few weeks at a time, pass laws king wanted-vote him additional taxes
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Henry VII's involvement in politics
Limited his use of patronage, governed effectively-income secure,established his reign, rebellions on small scale compared to other monarchs
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How did the King rule?
Ruled by decrees and proclamations-used Parliament sparingly-serve interests of monarch,to keep subjects under control-Acts of Attainder, Pass law against riots/retaining,Controversial policies-financial demands(taxes) and limitations on privileges
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National government
Personal government-power derived from the monarch, Parliament, Committees and law courts
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Who represented northern England?
The Earl of Suffolk
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Committees and law Courts in national government
Privy Chamber, Star Chamber, Council learned in law and Royal Council
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What was the largest group within the Royal Council?
Those with a Church background, 1485-1509 - 50% of council were clerics
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Henry's involvement in the the Royal Council
Attended meetings and was proactive
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How did Henry control the nobility?
Attainders, Patronage, Attacks on retaining and Financial controls
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Who were Henry's most trusted supporters in the royal council?
Inner circle of nobility, educated professionals, especially lawyers at advisers, Advised the king on matters of state and acted in a judicial capacity, Selected on ability and loyalty
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From 1485-1509, how many royal councillors were there and what was regular attendance?
227 royal councillors - attendance usually totalled about 40 members - John Morton and Reginald Bray - raise funds for Bosworth, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
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John Morton
Churchmen lawyer, Against Richard III, Cardinal 1493, Archbishop of Canterbury 1486 - encouraged nobility to offer loans to the crown - forced everyone to hand over money
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Thomas Howard
Earl of Surrey made Lord Treasurer in 1501
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Earl of Oxford
Great Chamberlain and Lord Admiral
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Jasper Tudor
Duke of Bedford - became most powerful nobleman in Wales - when he dies was replaced by Bishop of Lincoln who had no power base
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What did the Council Learned in law deal with?
Dealt with crown lands and Duchy of Lancaster
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When was the Council Learned in law introduced and why?
1495 - to defend Henry's position as a feudal landlord
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Sir Richard Empson
Became chancellor of the Duchy and President of the Council Learned in law - he rigorously asserted royal feudal rights and later admitted that he made up feudal dues in more than 80 cases
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Empson and Dudley
Made bonds and recognisances work efficiently - raised extraction of money - universally hated and feared
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Star Chamber
Prosecuting rebellious behaviour and acted as a court of appeal
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Court of Requests
Dealt with legal cases involving those who could not afford the high costs of the normal system
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Court of General Surveyors
Overlooked crown lands
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Sheriffs
Appointed annually from local landowners - had their own court and enforced law - similar to a police force
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How did Henry prefer to select his JPs?
From the second tier of a county's landowners - answerable to the kings - restricts the power of the great magnates - useful source of information, yearly elections meant they had to stay in favour or fall from grace socially-incentives
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Evidence that Henry continued Edward's policy of extending the power of JPs
1487 - allowed them to grant bail, 1495-Gave them authority to deal with bias judges, and allowed to reward informers
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Why did JPs not receive income for their work?
Merely being a JP was honorary enough and gave them the opportunity to advance in the social hierarchy
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What was the average number of JPs per county?
18
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What would the most senior JP in a county be called?
A bishop
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Justices of the Peace
Superseded the local power of sheriffs and were the chief local gov officers-public order in there area of jurisdiction-executing legislation-greater social cohesion-law and order generally maintained
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Who did JPs rely on to enforce decisions?
Knights and Squires
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Quarter sessions
Every 3 months all JPs in a county met - serious court cases were dealt with-if too difficult for JPs-sent to Assize court
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Assize court
Cases that were too difficult to be dealt with by JPs were sent here, held in each county every 6 months, specialised commissioned judges by the crown
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How did Henry want to extend his rule?
Increasing the power of JPs, More frequent use of the Royal Council, Exploitation of crown lands
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Was Henry successful at instilling a sense of loyalty, obedience and service to the Crown in the nobility?
Yes he managed to do this - evidence that he was great at managing people
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How did the king communicate with JPs an Sheriffs?
Via a series of writs-written orders that were not open to interpretation, one of the major problems was asserting his authority at local level after years of dislocation with regards to authority
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How did Edward IV deal with nobility and local government?
Appointed favoured nobles to govern locality-powerful in their own areas and their power seemed greater than that of the King's, they had no change of breaking into inner circle which resulted in discontent among noblemen, communication slow/unrealia
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What did Henry change in governing locality and nobility?
Centralise gov(remain in London), Move away from one individual having control over a region(restricted power), Only put his trusted nobles in power
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Lord Stanley
Trusted nobleman who controlled South Lancashire and Cheshire
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Earl of Oxford
Trusted nobleman who controlled East Anglia
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Marquess of Dorset
Could not trust him - took away his region in the South-West
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Earl of Northumberland
Remain lieutenant of the North but had his powers restricted-when he died in 1489-replaced with trusted Earl of Surrey-did not get land-was then replaced by a council in 1501 under Archbishop of York
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Lovell's rebellion 1486
Led by Yorkists: Viscount Francis Lovell, Humphrey and Thomas Stafford, Taken sanctuary from Henry at colchester but emerged in 1486 to gather troops against him - quickly collapsed
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Cornish rebellion 1497
Second tax rebellion in Henry's reign - Raise money to defend the north against a possible Scottish invasion to support Perkin Warbek
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Yorkshire rebellion 1489
Caused by Henry's attempt to raise money for Brittany campaign - Earl of Northumberland killed
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Lambert Simnel
Claimed to be Earl of Warwick who was in Tower (Henry proved this), Proclaimed King by Yorkist Lord Earl of Kildare, Raised little support in North(Battle of Stoke 1487),Support from Margaret of Burgundy (2000 soldiers) and John de la Pole
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What happened to Lambert Simnel after the battle of stoke 1487?
Was allowed to work in the King's Kitchen
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Battle of Stoke 1487
Part of the rebellion by Lambert Simnel - last battle of War of Roses - John de la Pole and key Yorkists killed
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Perkin Warbeck
Claimed to be Richard of York in Ireland 1491, landed in Kent July 1945 where he failed to rouse support - William Stanley had been execute in 1495 and Maximillian was busy with domestic issues
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Why did Charles VIII of France support Warbeck?
Embarrass Henry + to divert his attention from annexation of Brittany - made peace with Henry in 1492 - Warbeck forced to Burgundy - Margaret and Maximillian
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King James IV of Scotland's support for Perkin Warbeck
Befriended Warbeck - Disaster invasion on Warbeck's behalf 1497 - Warbeck fled to Ireland - gave himself up in 1497-ran way from Tower 1498- Executed in 1499
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Card 2

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Only called 7 times, longest was for 3 months in his 24 year reign, met infrequently and usually not for more than a few weeks at a time, pass laws king wanted-vote him additional taxes

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Did Parliament have a minor role in political life during the reign of Henry VII?

Card 3

Front

Limited his use of patronage, governed effectively-income secure,established his reign, rebellions on small scale compared to other monarchs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Ruled by decrees and proclamations-used Parliament sparingly-serve interests of monarch,to keep subjects under control-Acts of Attainder, Pass law against riots/retaining,Controversial policies-financial demands(taxes) and limitations on privileges

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Personal government-power derived from the monarch, Parliament, Committees and law courts

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Preview of the back of card 5
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