In depth Triple Chemistry (1b)

  • Created by: HarveyCB
  • Created on: 27-09-18 12:57
What were the two ways to classify elements (until recently)
Physical/chemical properties, or their relative atomic mass
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When did scientists start organising elements in order of atomic number
After protons and electrons were discovered
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Why could we only order elements before the 20th century using relative atomic mass
Because that was all we could measure
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Where does the name 'periodic table' come from
When scientists ordered the elements by relative atomic mass they noticed a periodic pattern in elements properties
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Why were the first periodic tables incomplete
Not all the elements had been discovered, and some of them had ended up in the wrong column because of this
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Who overcame some of the original problems of the periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869
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What did Mendeleev do
He ordered the 57 known elements into his table of elements, leaving gaps to allow some elements to go into groups with similar properties
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What did the gaps in the Table of Elements indicate
That there were undiscovered elements, and allowed predictions of their properties
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Mendeleev ordered the elements in order of atomic mass with a few exceptions, why were these made
To put elements in groups with the same properties
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Give an example of elements in the periodic table not in order of atomic mass
Iodine (I) and Tellurium (Te)
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What did the discovery of isotopes do to prove Mendeleevs table
They showed he was right to not always order them by atomic mass, and to include properties
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What is the periodic table
A table containing all the known elements
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What is the name for the columns in the table
Groups
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What is the names for the rows in the table
Periods
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What is a general rule about metals and non metals in the periodic table
Metals are to the left, non metals to the right
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What does the group number of an element tell you about its structure
How many electrons are in it's outer shell
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Which group has two names
Group 0 / Group 8
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What is the structure of group 0 atoms
They have a full outer shell
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What do elements in a group have in common
They react in a similar way
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What do all group 1 elements form when they react with water
An alkaline solution and hydrogen gas
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What do all group 1 elements form when they react with oxygen
An oxide
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What is the reactivity trend in group 1
As you go further down the group the elements react more vigorously
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What is the reactivity trend in group 7
Reactivity decreases as you go down the group
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What are metals
Elements which form positive ions when they react
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What are non metals
Elements that form negative ions or bond covalently with other non metals
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What are the metals in the centre of the periodic table know as
The transition metals
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What are the majority of elements in the periodic table
Metals
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What do atoms generally react to form
A full outer shell
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What does the electronic structure of a metal and non metal explain
Why they react how they do
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Why do metals normally form positive ions
Because they have less electrons to lose than gain to get a full outer shell
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Why do elements at the bottom of the periodic table usually form positive ions
Because their outer shell is further from the nucleus, so less energy is needed to remove electrons from the outer shell
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Why do non metals usually form negative ions
They have more electrons to lose than gain, and their outer shell is closer to the nucleus, as they are typically near the top of the table
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What are the properties of metals
They're strong, malleable, good at conducting heat and electricity, generally have high melting/boiling points and are usually solid at room temperature
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What does strong mean
Hard to break
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What does malleable mean
Can be bent or hammered into shape (ductile)
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What are the properties of non metals
Dull, more brittle than metals, lower boiling/melting points, not always solid at room temperature, generally not conductive, lower density than metals
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What is important to remember about non metals chemical properties
They form a wide variety of structures so they have a wide range of properties
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What is the name of group 1
The alkali metals
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What is the name of group 2
The alkali earth metals
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What is the name of group 7
The halogens
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What is the name of group 8
The noble gases
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What are the properties of the alkali metals
Silvery solids, can cause chemical burns, one electron in their outer shell, very reactive, low density
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What are the alkali metals
Lithium, sodium, potassium, rhodium, cadmium, francium
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What is the reactivity trend for group 1
The lower down you go, the more reactive, as the outer shell is further away from the nucleus, and the one electron is lost easier
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What is the group 1 trend for melting and boiling points
They decrease as you go down the group
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What is the group one trend for relative atomic mass
It increases as you go down the group
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What do alkali metals form when they react with non metals
Ionic compounds
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Why do the alkali metals form ionic bonds
It is easier to lose one electron than to share
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What are the usual properties of alkali metals and non metal compounds
White solids that dissolve in water to form cloudless solutions
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Alkali metal + water --> ?
Metal hydroxide + hydrogen
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How do lithium, sodium and potassium react with water
They float, and move around on the surface fizzing. Sometimes it gets hot enough to ignite the hydrogen produced
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How do elements below potassium react with water
Explosively
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How can you test the products of an alkali metal with water
With a squeaky pop test for hydrogen, and universal indicator for the solution
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Alkali metal + chlorine --> ?
Metal chloride
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An alkali metal must be what with chlorine gas to react
Heated
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Alkali metal + oxygen --> ?
Metal oxide
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List the group 7 elements
Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine
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The halogens are diatomic, what does this mean
They exist in pairs of atoms
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What are the properties of halogens
Coloured vapours
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Describe fluorine
A poisonous yellow gas
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Describe chlorine
A poisonous, dense, green gas
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Describe bromine
Dense, poisonous, red-brown volatile liquid or orange vapour
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Describe iodine
Poisonous dark grey, crystalline solid or purple vapour
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Describe the group seven reactivity trend
They get less reactive the further down the group you go
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Explain the group seven reactivity trend
The attraction between the outer shell and the nucleus is less the further down the group you go, as it is further away, so it is harder to gain an electron
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What is the group seven melting and boiling point trend
The melting and boiling points increase as you go further down the group
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What do the halogens form when they react with non metals
Simple molecular structures, joined by covalent bonds
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What ions do group seven elements form
1- ions called halide ions
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What do group seven elements form when they react with metals
An ionic compound
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What can a more reactive halogen do
Displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt
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What can astatine not do
Displace other halogens, as it is the least reactive
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List the noble gases
Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon
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What are the properties of the noble gases
Inert, non-flammable, cloudless, monatomic gases
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What does inert mean
Un reactive
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Why should you use the word non-flammable rather than inflammable
Because inflammable and flammable are synonyms, meaning something can catch fire
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What does monatomic mean
They are single atoms not bonded to anything else
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What are the trends in group 0
The boiling points and relative atomic masses increase as you go down the group
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Explain why the boiling point of group 0 atoms increase as you go down the group
The atomic number and number of electrons increase, therefore increasing the intermolecular forces and the energy required to break them
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How can you calculate an estimate of an elements boiling point
Find the midpoint of the boiling points of the elements it is between
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What are the properties of transition metals
Good conductors of heat and electricity, dense, strong and shiny
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What do you find when comparing transition metals with alkali metals
The transition metals are less reactive, denser, stronger, harder, and have higher melting and boiling points
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What can most transition metals do
Form multiple ions
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What do different transition metal ions do
Form different coloured compounds
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What colour compounds do Fe 2+ ions usually form
Green
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What colour compounds do Fe 3+ usually form
Yellow
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Give some examples of substances where the colour is caused by transition metals
Gemstones like sapphires and emeralds, and pottery glazes
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What colour is potassium chromate(VI)
Yellow
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What colour is potassium manganate(VII)
Purple
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What colour is copper(II) sulfate
Blue
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Give an example of two transition metals used as catalysts
Iron (Haber process) and Nickel (hydrogenation of alkenes)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When did scientists start organising elements in order of atomic number

Back

After protons and electrons were discovered

Card 3

Front

Why could we only order elements before the 20th century using relative atomic mass

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where does the name 'periodic table' come from

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why were the first periodic tables incomplete

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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