In depth Triple Chemistry (1a)

  • Created by: HarveyCB
  • Created on: 27-09-18 09:44
What are atoms
The tiny particles that everything is made up of
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What is the radius of an atom
0.1 nanometers
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What is 0.1 nanometers in metres
1x10 to the power of -10 metres
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What model do we typically use for the atom
The nuclear model
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What does the nuclear model say the structure of an atom is
A small nucleus surrounded by electrons in shells
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Where is the nucleus
In the middle of the atom
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What is the nucleus made of
Protons and neutrons
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What is the relative charge of a proton
+1
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What is the relative charge of a neutron
0
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What charge does the nucleus have
Positive, because of the protons
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What is the radius of the neutron
1x10 to the power of -14
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How much smaller is the nucleus compared to the atom
The nucleus is 1/10000 the size of an atom
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Where are the electrons in the atom
In shells around the nucleus
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What is the relative mass of a proton
1
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What is the relative mass of an elctron
Very small
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What is the relative mass of a neutron
1
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What is the relative charge of an electron
-1
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Where is most of an atoms mass located
The nucleus
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What is true for all elements
The number of protons equals the number electrons
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What does an equal number of protons and electrons mean
The atoms have no overall charge
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What is it called when an electron gains or loses an atom
An ion
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What determines what type of atom it is
The number of protons in the nucleus
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What is an atom with one proton in its nucleus called
Hydrogen
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What is an atom with two protons called
Helium
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What do you call a substance containing only one type of atom
An element
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What can atoms of each element be represented by
A one or two letter symbol
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What is the nuclear symbol
The chemical symbol for an element (the one or two letter symbol)
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What is the number often shown beneath the chemical symbol
The atomic number
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What is the atomic number
The number of protons (and therefore electrons)
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What is another name for the atomic number
The proton number
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What is the number often shown above the chemical symbol
The mass number
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What does the mass number tell you
The total number of protons and neutrons
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How can you calculate the number of neutrons in an element
Mass number - atomic number
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What are isotopes
Different forms of the same element
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How are isotopes different to the original element
They have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
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What do we use when referring to the mass of elements
The relative atomic mass
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What is the relative atomic mass
An average mass taking into account the masses and abundance of the elements isotopes
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How to you calculate relative atomic mass
(Sum of (isotope abundance x isotope mass number)) divided by the sum of abundances of all the isotopes
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What should the sum of the abundances be when they are given as percentages
100
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What are the mass numbers of elements on the periodic table also called
The relative atomic masses
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What is the isotope abundance
How much of the isotope there is
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What are compounds
A substance of two or more elements chemically bonded together
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How are compounds formed
When elements react
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How are elements held together in a compound
Chemical bonds
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What is a mixture
A substance made of two or more elements NOT chemically bonded
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What are the two types of chemical bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding
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How are ionic compounds formed
When a metal and non metal react to form a compound made of ions
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What happens to metal atoms when they react with non metals
The metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions
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What happens to non metal atoms when they react with metals
The non metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions
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What is ionic bonding
When oppositely charged ions are strongly attracted to each other
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Give three examples of ionic compounds
Sodium chloride, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide
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What do compounds formed of non metals usually contain
Molecules
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What is covalent bonding
When atoms share electrons with other atoms
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Give three examples of covalent compounds
Hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide and water
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How are compounds represented
With formulas
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How are formulas written
As elemental symbols in the same proportions that the elements can be found in the compound
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What are the two types of compounds
Small molecules or big structures called lattices (big in atomic terms)
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How can elements be reformed from a compound
Through a chemical reaction, not a physical process
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What happens during a chemical reaction
Bonds between the atoms break and the atoms change places
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What do you call things that are formed from a chemical reaction
Products
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What do you call the original substances in a chemical reaction
Reactants
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What do word equations show
What happens in the chemical reaction using the full names of the substances involved
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How would you write a word equations
Reactant + reactant --> product
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What are symbol equations
Equations that show what happens in the chemical reaction using chemical symbols and formulas
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What do you need to do when writing a symbol equation
Make sure it is balanced, that there are is an equal amount of each element on either side of the arrow
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How can you separate a mixture
Using physical methods such as chromatography, filtration, crystallization, simple distillation and fractional distillation
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How do you figure out the properties of a mixture
They are a mixture of the properties of the separate parts
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How do you decide which physical method to use to separate a mixture
It depends on the different physical properties of each component
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What is chromatography used for
To separate mixtures made up of liquids of different colours
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What type of paper do you use for paper chromatography
Filter paper
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What do you use to draw the line at the bottom of the paper
Pencil (it is insoluble)
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What must the line at the bottom of the paper be above
The top of the solvent
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What are two solvents you could use
Water or ethanol
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Why would you use ethanol as the solvent
When the substances in the mixture won't dissolve in water
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What should you put on top of the container and why
A lid to prevent the solvent evaporating
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What is the solvent front
The point the solvent had reached as it moves up the paper
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What is the pattern of spots at the end of chromatography called
A chromatogram
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What does the number of spots on a chromatogram sometimes tell you
The number of substances in the mixture (not always the case as two dyes could travel the same distance and therefore appear as one spot)
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What can we say about the number of spots on a chromatogram
There are at least as many substances in the mixture as spots
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How do you separate an insoluble solid and a liquid
Filtration
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What do you pour the mixture through in filtration
A filter funnel and filter paper
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What are two methods of separating a soluble solid and a solution
Evaporation and crystallisation
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What does soluble mean
If the solid can be dissolved
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What does insoluble mean
The solid can't be dissolved
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What is evaporation used for
Separating a soluble salt from a solution, when the salt will not decompose when heated
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When is crystallisation used
To separate a soluble salt from a solution when the salt will decompose when heated
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What does evaporation produce
A dry solid
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What does crystallisation produce
Crystals
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During crystallisation when do you stops heating the mixture
Once you see crystals start to form (point of crystallisation) or once some of the solvent has evaporated
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How can you speed up the drying process in crystallisation
Using a drying oven or desiccator
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What do you use to contain the mixture in filtration and crystallisation
An evaporating dish
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Give an example of when you would combine different mixture separating techniques
To separate a mixture of salt and sand (add water to dissolve salt, filter to remove sand, evaporate to isolate salt)
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What are the two types of distillation
Simple and fractional
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When is simple distillation used
To separate a liquid from a mixture
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What do you use to get the desired liquid from the vapour
A condenser (a tube surrounded by a container of cool water)
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When will simple distillation not work
When the substances' boiling point are close to each others
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When is fractional distillation used
To desperate mixtures of different liquids, especially when the boiling point are close together
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What is the basic principle of all distillation
To evaporate a liquid from a mixture
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Why is fractional distillation different to simple distillation
You are evaporating multiple liquids by heating the liquid at slightly different temperatures
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What was the original atom model
The plum pudding model
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When was the plum pudding model first thought of
In 1897, after JJ Thompson concluded from his experiments that atoms weren't solid spheres
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Who described the atom as a solid sphere
John Dalton at the start of the 19th century
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What did JJ Thomson describe the atom as in his plum pudding model
A positive sphere containing negatively charged particles (electrons)
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Who came up with the original nuclear model
Ernest Rutherford and his student Ernest Marsden in 1909
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How did Rutherford come up with the nuclear model
By firing alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold, expecting most to pass through due to the spread out positive charge suggested by the plum pudding model, but more were deflected than they thought
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What did Rutherford describe the nuclear model as
A tiny positively charged nucleus where most of the mass is concentrated at the centre of an atom, surrounded by a 'cloud' of electrons
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How was the nuclear model improved
Scientists realised the electrons would be attracted to the nucleus, and the atom would collapse, so Bohr proposed the idea of fixed shells, an idea which was proved by many experiments
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Who discovered protons
Rutherford and other scientists, who discovered the nucleus could be divided into smaller particles with the same charge as a hydrogen nucleus
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Who discovered neutrons
James Chadwick, who carried out an experiment proving neutral particles in the nucleus
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Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell, how many in the first
Two
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Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell, how many in all of them besides the first one
Eight
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How do you draw a proton
As a ball surrounded by circles, with crosses drawn on the circles to represent electrons
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the radius of an atom

Back

0.1 nanometers

Card 3

Front

What is 0.1 nanometers in metres

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What model do we typically use for the atom

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the nuclear model say the structure of an atom is

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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