In depth Triple Biology (2a)

  • Created by: HarveyCB
  • Created on: 09-09-18 14:43
What are multicellular organisms
Organism made up of large groups of cells
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What are specialised cells organised into
Tissues, organs then organ systems
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What is an example of an organ system
Breathing systems in mammals
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What do organisms have multiple organ systems
Large multicellular
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What is a tissue
A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function
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What can tissues contain
Multiple cell types
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Give three examples of tissues in mammals
Muscular, glandular and epithelial
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What is muscular tissue
Tissue that contracts to move whatever its attached to
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What is glandular tissue
Tissue that makes and secretes substances like enzymes and hormones
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What is epithelial tissue
Tissue that covers certain parts of the body, like the inside of the gut
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What is an organ
A group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function
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What tissues make up the stomach
Muscular, glandular and epithelial
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What is an organ system
A group of organs working together to perform a particular function
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Name the organ system that contains the stomach
The digestive system
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What organs make up the digestive system
Glands (the pancreas and salivary glands), the stomach, the liver, the small intestine and the large intestine
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What do the glands in the digestive system do
Produce digestive juices
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What does the stomach do
Digest food
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What does the liver do
Produce bile
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What does the small intestine do
Digest food and absorb soluble food molecules
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What does the large intestine do
Absorb water from the undigested food, leaving faeces
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Why are the lungs essential for many animals
Because they play a vital role in the exchange of gases
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What is gas exchange in the lungs
The process of oxygen being absorbed into your blood, and carbon dioxide from your blood into the air
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What is the difference between respiration and breathing
Breathing is when air is forced in and out of your lungs, respiration is a chemical reaction that releases energy from glucose
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Where are the lungs
In the thorax
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What is the thorax
The top part of your body, which is separated from you abdomen by the diaphragm
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What are the lungs protected by
Your ribcage
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What surrounds your lungs
The pleural membranes
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The air that you breathe in goes through what first after your mouth
The trachea
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What does the air you breathe in travel through after the trachea
One of the two bronchi, which split into smaller tubes called principles, and then into alveoli
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What is the singular of bronchi
Bronchus
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Where does gas exchange happen in lungs
Tiny air sacks called alveoli
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Where has the blood by the alveoli just been
The rest of the body, so it contains lots of carbon dioxide and little oxygen
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What happens to oxygen in the aveoli
It diffuses out the alveoli into the blood
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What happens to carbon dioxide in the blood
It diffuses out the blood into the alveoli
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What happens when oxygenated blood reaches body cells
The oxygen is released from the red blood cells and diffuses into the body cells, while carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood
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What happens to deoxygenated blood
It is carried back to the lungs
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How do you calculate breathing rate
Number of breaths divided by number of minutes
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What is the function of the circulatory system
To get food and oxygen to every cell in the body
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What else does the circulatory system do
Carries away waste products to where they can be removed
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What is included in the circulatory system
The heart, blood vessels, and the blood
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What is special about the human circulatory system
It's a double circulatory system
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What is a double circulatory system
Two circuits joined together
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What is the first circuit in the human circulatory system
The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, before it returns as oxygenated blood to the heart
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What is the second circuit in the human circulatory system
The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood around the other organs of the body, and returns to the heart as deoxygenated blood
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What tissue makes up the heart
Muscle tissue
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Name the four chambers in the heart
Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle
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Name the main blood vessels leading into and out of these chambers
The vena cava, pulmonary artery, aorta and pulmonary vein
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Describe the path of blood through the right side of the heart
Into the vena cava, then the right atrium, then the right ventricle, and out through the pulmonary vein
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Describe the path of blood through the left side of the heart
In through the pulmonary vein, into the left atrium, then the left ventricle, and out through the aorta
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How does the heart ensure the blood flows in the right direction
It contains valves
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How does the heart access its own supply of oxygenated blood
Through coronary arteries that branch off the aorta
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How is blood forced between the chambers
The chambers contract, pushing it onwards
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What is the pacemaker
A cluster of cells that produce small electrical impulses which spread to the surrounding muscle cells, causing them to contract
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Where is the pacemaker located
In the right atrium wall in your heart
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What is used when the natural pacemaker does not work (an irregular heartbeat)
An artificial pacemaker, which is a little device implanted under the skin with a wire going to the heart, which produces an electric current
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How does our blood make its way around the body
In blood vessels
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Name three types of blood vessels
Arteries, veins and capillaries
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Where do arteries carry blood
Away from the heart
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What are the features of an artery
Strong elastic walls, which contain thick layers of muscle and elastic fibres, and a thin lumen
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What is the lumen
The hole down the middle of the blood vessel
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Why are the artery walls strong and elastic
Because the blood is pumped out the heart at a high pressure
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What do arteries branch into
Capillaries
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Where do capillaries carry the blood
Close to every cell in the body
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What are capillaries involved in
The exchange of materials at the tissues
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What do capillaries supply to the cells
Food and oxygen, while carrying away carbon dioxide
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What are the features of a capillary
Permeable walls, usually only one cell thick, and very narrow lumen
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Why are the walls of a capillary so thin and permeable
To increase the rate of diffusion
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Why is the lumen of a capillary so narrow
To give them a large surface area compared to their volume
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What do capillaries join up to form
Veins
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Where do veins carry the blood
To the heart
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What are the features of a vein
Large lumen, thinner walls than an artery, and valves
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Why are the walls thin and why is the lumen large in veins
Because the blood is at a lower pressure (no need for strong walls, and more space for the blood to move)
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Why do veins have valves
To help keep the blood flowing in the right direction
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How do you calculate the rate of blood flow
Volume of blood divided by number of minutes
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What is blood
A tissue
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What is the function of the blood
To transport substances around the body
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What is blood made up of
Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets suspended in plasma
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What is the job of red blood cells
To transport oxygen around your body
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How do people living at high altitudes compensate for less oxygen in the air
They produce more red blood cells
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What's the name of the pigment in red blood cells
Haemoglobin
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What does haemoglobin carry
The oxygen
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What shape are red blood cells
Biconcave to give them a large surface area for absorbing oxygen
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How are red blood cells different to most animal cells
They have no nucleus, to make space for more haemoglobin and therefore oxygen
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What happens to the oxygen when it is absorbed into red blood cells
It combines with haemoglobin into oxyhaemoglobin
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What is different about white blood cells
There are different kinds
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What is the function of all white blood cells
To defend against microorganisms that cause disease
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How do white blood cells fight disease
Phagocytosis, the production of antibodies to fight the microorganism, and the production antitoxins to neutralise any toxins it produces
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What is phagocytosis
When a white blood cell engulfs unwelcome microorganisms and digests it
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What are platelets
Fragments of cells without a nucleus
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What is the function of platelets
To help blood clot at a wound, preventing blood loss and microorganisms entering the wound
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What is plasma
A straw coloured liquid which carries nearly everything in the blood
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What does plasma carry
Red and white blood cells, platelets, soluble products of digestion, carbon dioxide, urea, hormones, proteins, antibodies and antitoxins
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Give two examples of soluble products of digestion carried in plasma
Glucose and amino acids
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How are plant cells organised
Into tissues, then organs (stems, roots and leaves) then organ systems
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Give some examples of plant tissues
Epidermal, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, xylem, phloem and meristem
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What is plant epidermal tissue
Tissue that covers the whole plant
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What is palisade mesophyll tissue
Tissue where most photosynthesis happens
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What is spongy mesophyll tissue
Part of the leaf with big air spaces to allow diffusion of gases
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What is xylem tissue
Tubes that carry water and minerals around the plant
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What is phloem tissue
Tubes that carry food (mainly dissolved sugars) around the plant
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What is meristem tissue
Tissue found at the growing tips of roots and shoots, that can differentiate into lots of different types of plant cell
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What tissues do leaves contain
Epidermal, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, xylem and phloem
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What is the epidermal tissue in leaves covered in
A waxy cuticle to reduce water loss by evaporation
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What is special about the upper epidermis
It is transparent to allow light to pass through to the palisade layer
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What does the palisade mesophyll layer contain lots of
Chloroplasts, so they are close to the surface, and therefore can access the most light
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What do xylem and phloem form
A network of vascular bundles
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What is the purpose of the vascular bundle network
To deliver water and other nutrients to the leaf, take away glucose, and support the structure
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How is the lower epidermis adapted for gas exchange
It is filled with little holes called stomata, which allow carbon dioxide into the leaf. Guard cells control the stomata
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What are the two transport tissues in flowering plants
Xylem and phloem
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What do xylem and phloem cells both form
Tubes
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What are phloem tubes made up of
Columns of elongated living cells, with small pores in the end walls to allow cell sap through
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What do phloem tubes transport
Food substances made in the leaves to the rest of the plant in a liquid called cell sap
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What is cell sap made up of
The substances being transported and water
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What are most of the food substances in phloem
Dissolved sugars
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In which direction does transport go in phloem
Both directions
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What is the transport of food in plants called
Translocation
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What are xylem tubes made up of
Hollow dead cells joined end to end, with no end walls, that are strengthened by lignin
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In what direction does xylem transport water and minerals
From the roots to the stem and leaves
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What does xylem carry
Water and minerals
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What is the loss of water in plants called
Transpiration
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What is the transpiration stream
The movement of water from the roots, through the xylem and out of the leaves
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What is just a side effect of the leaves adaptation for photosynthesis
Transpiration
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How does the water evaporate
Through the stomata
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What is the main purpose of the stomata
To assist in gas exchange
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What are the factors that affect transportation rate
Light intensity, temperature, air flow and humidity
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How does light intensity affect transpiration rate
The brighter it is, the more photosynthesis is occurring, meaning the stomata are more open, and the transpiration rate is higher
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How does the temperature affect transpiration
The warmer it is the more water evaporates and diffuses out the stomata, increasing transpiration rate
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How does air flow affect transpiration rate
The greater the air flow the steeper the concentration gradient, encouraging the diffusion of water particles, therefore increasing the transpiration rate
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How does humidity affect the transpiration rate
The higher the humidity, the lower the concentration gradient, lowering the diffusion of water and therefore the transpiration rate
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How would you estimate the rate of transpiration
By measuring the uptake of water by a plant
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The rate of transpiration is given in which units?
Does not matter, check the exam question
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What do guard cells control
The size of the stomata
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How many guard cells surround each stoma
Two
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What shape are the guard cells
Kidney shape
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How do guard cells increase water loss
When the plant has lots of water, the guard cells fill with it and go turgid, holding open the stomata
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How do guard cells decrease water loss
When the plant is short of water the guard cells go flaccid, making the stomata close
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How are the guard cells adapted
Thin outer walls and thick inner walls (inner meaning around the stomata, outer meaning the away from the stomata)
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What are guard cells sensitive to as well as water
Light, they close at night to save water without losing out on phtosynthesis
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Where do you normally find most stomata
The shady under sides of leaves
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What are guard cells adapted for
Gas exchange and controlling water loss
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are specialised cells organised into

Back

Tissues, organs then organ systems

Card 3

Front

What is an example of an organ system

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do organisms have multiple organ systems

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a tissue

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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