Improving memory

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Craik and Lockhart
Memory side effect of information processing
1 of 24
Intentional better than
2 of 24
Hyde and Jenkins
asked whether E or G present in word, frequency, pleasant or unpleasant- LoP
3 of 24
Craik and Tulving
Case, rhymes, whether it fits in sentence- LoP/ Robust effect- yes
4 of 24
Morris et al
Semantic/ rhyme- better for rhyming- situational
5 of 24
6 of 24
Distinctive encoding
not following pronunciation rules/ different colours- cues
7 of 24
Farrand et al
mind maps better than controls after 2 weeks but not immediately
8 of 24
Greater effect for students with
low verbal ability
9 of 24
Testing effects
10 of 24
** reduced long term forgetting even if it doesn't enhance immediate learning
11 of 24
McDaniel et al
40 days- Short answer> Multiple choice> reading over
12 of 24
Transfer appropriate processing
intermediate tests matched final test- even better if IT more demanding
13 of 24
Spacing effect
Difference between massed and spaced learning
14 of 24
Deficiency processing theory
Different processing tasks doesn't eliminate spacing effects
15 of 24
Encoding variability theory
Further apart= more distinct learning contexts
16 of 24
Study-phase retrieval theory
Second presentation acts as stimulus for first
17 of 24
Atkinson and Rayh
120 words- test after 4 days or 6 weeks- keyword method better than control for both
18 of 24
Protect memory/ facilitate consolidation/ reorganise brain
19 of 24
1-2yr old baby
tone and puff of air
20 of 24
Luria AR
Person S- remember loads of numbers in 3 mins- method loci
21 of 24
Perceiving one sensory modality with another
22 of 24
Photographic memory
10% children- lost in adolescence
23 of 24
Hyperthymesia or Highly superior autobiographical memory
Total recall of autobiographical events
24 of 24

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Intentional better than



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Hyde and Jenkins


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Craik and Tulving


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Morris et al


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