Important figures

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Thomas Howard, third Duke of Northumberland
Lord High Treasurer with a seat on the Royal Council. He was a conservative, uncle of Anne Boleyn. Instrumental in the fall of Cromwell, but after Catherine's fall his family lost favour
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Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk
Ennobled because of his friendship with Henry. He helped to bring about Wolsey's downfall. He served the king in return for land etc. and he was largely responsible for the suppression of the 1536 Licolnshire risings
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Thomas Cromwell
Humble start, but went on to take over the management of the break with Rome and became the king's chief advisor, before being executed in 1540
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Thomas Canmer
Moderate reformist ideas, and 1530-32 he was active in seeking support for the King's divorce and this led him to become Archbishop. Played a major role in church reformation under Edward, but accused of being a heretic under Mary, and died a martyr
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Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset
1547, he used his links to establish himself as Lord Protector, but later was removed by Earl of Warwick
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Sir Francis Walsingham
Returned to England upon Elizabeth's accession and helped into Parliament by William Cecil. His main role was to gather info using contacts on the continent. Role in relations with the Huguenots and plots against the queen
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Stephen Gardiner
Opposed the reformation and removed from office under Edward. Became Mary's most trusted advisor and served on her Privy Council as Lord Chancellor
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Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton
Rewarded for his work with extensive ex-religious lands. 1540: became one of the king's principal secretaries 1544: Lord Chancellor, and 1547: Earl of Southampton of Henry's wishes
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Sir Thomas Seymour
Married Catherine Parr, executed in March 1549 after Parr had died in childbirth and was suspected of plotting to enhance his power by marrying Elizabeth
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William Cecil
Managed Elizabeth's estates and was a member of Edward's Privy Council. He was a protestant but rejected any form of religious extremism. He became Elizabeth's main advisor and in 1567: became Lord Burghley
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John Knox
Considered to be the founder of the Presbyterian version of the Protestant religion. He was exiled to england in 1549 and rose to be chaplain to Edward. Played a key role in the Book of Common Prayer, exiled under Mary, leader of Scottish Reformation
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Cardinal Reginald Pole
Had a claim to the throne, refused to support Henry's divorce and went to exile in 1532. 1536: made cardinal, 1542: appointed papal legate. 1554: returned to head Mary's restoration of Catholicism. Archbishop of Canterbury, died 12 hours after Mary
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Matthew Parker
Chaplain to Anne Boleyn, under Edward he became Dean of Lincoln. Deprived of his living under Mary, but Archbishop under Elizabeth. He was a moderate reformer, and an author of the 39 articles
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Sir Nicholas Bacon
Known reformer but managed to escape persecutation under Mary. Under Elizabeth he was made Lord Keeper of the Seal, member of P. Council and Elizabeth valued his advice
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Edmund Grindal
Archbishop, had quarms about vestments and popish elements he saw in the Elizabethan church. Came into conflict with Elizabeth over prophesyings and was placed under house arrest from 1577 to his death in 1583
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John Jewell
Supporter of Cranmer and Ridley and fled during Mary's reign. Returned under Elizabeth and appointed Bishop of Salisbury and defended the Elizabethan church from its critics
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Edwin Sandys
Arressted for his part in favouring the accession of LJG, later fled to the continent. Returned under Elizabeth to become bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London and Archbishop of York successively
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Mary of Guise
Mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. 1554-1560, she ruled Scotland as regent until overthrown by the rebellion of the Scottish lords
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William of Orange
Advisor to Philip, but his Prot. beliefs led him to become the leader of the party devoted to securing liberties for the Netherlands. Named as a rebel in 1568, and played a key role in establishing a period of religious toleration in the Netherlands
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Henry, Duke of Anjou
Leader of the royal army against the Huguenots in the French Wars of Religion. He was a Catholic- marriage between him and Elizabeth was unlikely
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Henry Darnley
Cousin to Elizabeth and MQofS, and had a claim to the English throne. Married MQofS
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Robert Ridolfi
Nobleman from Florence. He masterminded the Ridolfi Plot
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Eustace Chapuys
Imperial ambassador and representative of the Habsburg Emperor and King of Spain. He was opposed to H8's actions between 1529-36, and because of his job, he sought to encourage resistance to royal policies, including rebellion and treason
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Sir Peter Carew
An evangelical Prot. he was active in the Edwardian Reformation, but accepted the accession of Mary until her plans for a Spanish marriage drove him into conspiracy and rebellion with Sir Thomas Wyatt
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Duke of Alencon
Youngest son of Catherine de Merci. He was Elizabeth's suitor from 1579-81
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Henry III of France
Ascended to the French throne in 1574. Although he was Elizabeth's suitor in 1570, his strong Catholic faith meant that marriage was never realistic
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Don Juan of Austria
Illegitimate son of Charles V, military leader and assigned to the Netherlands in 1576. He broke the terms of the Pacification of Ghent and successful of defeating armies in the Netherlands
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John Casimir
Calvinist and commissioned to fight on behalf of the Dutch prots in 1577. His destruction of Catholic churches in Walloon led to division within rebels, encouraged southern states to reach accord with Spain
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Sir Francis Drake
Renowned for attacking Spanish shipping. His raid on Cadiz in 1587 delayed the Armada by a year, and he was responsible for using fire ships that caused the Spanish to break anchor and led to them being scattered by the wind
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Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma and Piancenza from 1586-1592, and later Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Replaced Don Juan after his death, and defeated the Dutch rebels in 1584 Siege of Antwerp
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William Allen
Refused to take the Oath of Supremacy after Elizabeth's accession and left England. Set up a college at Douai to train missionary priests, who went to England to re-convert people to Catholicism. Wrote in support of Philip's plan to invade England
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Edmund Campion
Converted to Catholicism at Douai and entered the Jesuit order. He accompanied Robert Parsons in 1580, and was captured. He refused to renounce his Catholic faith-executed in December 1581
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Robert Parsons
Senior Jesuit who travelled to England in 1580. He fled the country after Campion's arrest and execution. He supported William Allen's stance over the Armada, believing that only armed intervention would restore Catholicism in England
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James VI of Scotland and I of England
Son of MQofS. Became king in 1567, and recognised as Elizabeth's heir in the Treaty of Berwick 1586, as long as he wasn't involved in plots against her. Acceded the throne in 1603
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Marquis of Santa Cruz
Supported Philip's claims to the Portugese throne. He recognised the threat posed by England to Spain, and established the first plans for the Armada
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Duke of Medina Sidonia
Alonso Perez du Guzman was given command of the Armada after the death of Santa Cruz. Threatend death to any captain in the Armada who broke the formation, ignored when the English sent fire ships against them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Ennobled because of his friendship with Henry. He helped to bring about Wolsey's downfall. He served the king in return for land etc. and he was largely responsible for the suppression of the 1536 Licolnshire risings

Back

Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk

Card 3

Front

Humble start, but went on to take over the management of the break with Rome and became the king's chief advisor, before being executed in 1540

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Moderate reformist ideas, and 1530-32 he was active in seeking support for the King's divorce and this led him to become Archbishop. Played a major role in church reformation under Edward, but accused of being a heretic under Mary, and died a martyr

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1547, he used his links to establish himself as Lord Protector, but later was removed by Earl of Warwick

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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