Immunology T1

Basic concepts of immunology

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  • Created by: Kavita :)
  • Created on: 15-02-15 16:07
What are the 4 classes of pathogens? Give examples
1) Extracellular Bacteria, parasites & fungi e.g. strep. pneumonia 2) Intracellular Bacteria, parasites e.g. mycobacterium leprae 3) Viruses (intacellular) e.g. Influenza 4) Parasitic worms (extracellular) E.g. Ascaris
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How does adaptive immunity differ from innate immunity?
1) Sepcific recognition molecules BCR, TCR 2) Generate immunological memory 3) TCR + BCR recognise all available antigens (not self)
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How is the inflammatory response induced?
1) Bacteria trigger macrophages to release cytokines & chemokines 2) Vasodilation & increase in vascular permeability (redness, heat) 3) Inflammatory cells migrate into tissue releasing inflammatory mediators that cause pain
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What provides initial discrimination between self & non-self?
Pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system
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How is the adaptive immune response initiated?
1) Dendritic cells migrate via lymphatic vessels to regional lymph nodes 2) Mature dendritic cells activate naive T-cells in lymphoid organs (IMMUNE RESPONSE = ANTIGEN DRIVEN)
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Where do the cells of the immune system derive from?
Precursors in the bone marrow
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Name 6 types of WBC and their functions
1) Macrophage (phagocytosis & presentation) 2) Dendritic cell (antigen uptake & presentation) 3) Neutrophil (phagocytosis & activation of bacterial mechanisms 4) Eosinophil (killing of antibody coated parasites) 5) Basophil 6) Mast cell (histamine)
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Name the properties of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity?
5 x10^11 in total, 20% B-cells 80% T cells, 49% in tissues 49% in lymph nodes + organs, only inactive cells circulate
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Name the 4 principles of clonal selection
1) Each lymphocyte has a single type of receptor with unique specificity 2) activation is achieved via interaction between foreign molecule and LR 3) differentiated effector cells same specificity as parental 4) LR specific for self mol. = deleted
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Where do receptors bind?
Epitopes - BCR = 3D, TCR = linear peptide
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Describe the Peyer's patches (GALT)
Covered by epithelial layer containing M cells, M cells have membrane ruffles
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Name 3 APC
1) Dendritic 2) Macrophage 3) B lymphocyte
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How do TCR bind to MHC molecule (epitopes)
1) Antigen broken down inti peptide fragments (epitope buried) 2) epitope peptide binds to self molecule (MHC) 3) TCR binds to a complex of MHC & epitope peptide
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Name the 3 ways in which antibodies produced by B cells protect against extraceullar pathogen?
1) Neutralization (ingestion by macrophage) 2) Opsonization (ingestion by macrophage) 3) Complement activation (lysis and ingestion)
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What T cells bind to which class of MHC molecules?
MHC Class 1 - CD8 (Tc cells) MHC Class II - CD4 (Th cells)
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Why is the immune system important?
1)day to day protection from disease 2)responds to tumours and cancers 3) responsible for hypersensitivity and autoimmune disease
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Card 2

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How does adaptive immunity differ from innate immunity?

Back

1) Sepcific recognition molecules BCR, TCR 2) Generate immunological memory 3) TCR + BCR recognise all available antigens (not self)

Card 3

Front

How is the inflammatory response induced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What provides initial discrimination between self & non-self?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is the adaptive immune response initiated?

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