Immunology L1

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Define pathogen.
A disease causing organism or virus.
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Name 5 pathogens in size order.
Viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminths.
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Protozoa and fungi are both...
...eukaryotic.
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Innate immunity recognises pathogen associated molecules but adaptive immunity...
... is specific for an antigen.
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Which is the oldest form of immunity?
Innate.
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Which branch of immunity are you born with and which branch do you acquire?
Innate = born with, adaptive = acquired by experience.
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Even though innate immunity is immediate it is limited because...
...the response is always the same with each pathogen.
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When did the adaptive immunity evolve?
Early in vertebrate evolution.
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What is the difference between the first and second exposure to the same pathogen within the adaptive response?
The first exposure has a lag period of around 4-5 days. The second exposure is more rapid and of a greater amplitude.
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Define antigen.
A non self molecular configuration. This is a general term that may be referring to part of a single foreign particle OR a molecule as part of a large, complex structure.
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Do lymphocytes recognise whole antgiens?
NO - they recognise small non-self molecular portions of antigens known as EPITOPES.
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What is an epitope?
A non self molecular portion of an antigen.
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Lymphocytes are specific for...
...just ONE antigenic epitope.
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What do lymphocytes have that allow them to recognise eptiopes?
Protein surface receptors (T cell receptor and B cell receptor).
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When you first become infected, what do you SELECT for?
The lymphocytes specific to that particular antigen.
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Outline what happens when you select for a particular lymphocyte (e.g. lymphocyte A)..
You start with a low frequency of lymphocyte A but a higher frequency is achieved through CLONAL EXPANSION. This in turn leads to the production of appropriate EFFECTOR CELLS to deal with the antigen. After this, long-lived MEMORY CELLS are produced.
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What do MEMORY CELLS do?
They ensure a more rapid response with the next exposure.
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Which arm of immunity does VACCINATION harness?
The adaptive arm.
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What purpose does VACCINATION serve?
It provides MEMORY CELLS that recognise antigens of a particular pathogen.
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Are immunological dysfunctions inherited or acquired?
EITHER.
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What is HYPERSENSITIVITY?
Where the body can't distinguish between HARMFUL foreign objects and INNOCUOUS (not harmful) foreign objects.
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Give 2 examples of undesirable immunity.
TRANSPLANT REJECTION and AUTOIMMUNITY (self vs. self).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name 5 pathogens in size order.

Back

Viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminths.

Card 3

Front

Protozoa and fungi are both...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Innate immunity recognises pathogen associated molecules but adaptive immunity...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which is the oldest form of immunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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