Immunity and Vaccinations

what is active immunity?
When your immune system makes its own antibodies after being stimulated by an antigen
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Describe Natural Active immunity
When you become immune after catching a disease
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Describe Artificial Active immunity
When you become immune after having a vaccination
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What is Passive immunity?
When you are given antibodies made by a different organism so your immune system doesn't produce its own antibodies
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Give an example of Natural Passive immunity
When a baby becomes immune to a disease due to antibodies from its mother being passed through the placenta or in breastmilk
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Describe Artificial Passive immunity
When you become immune after being injected with antibodies from someone else
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Describe the differences between Active and Passive immunity
Active Immunity: exposure to antigen, takes time for protection to develop, protection is long term, memory cells produced. Passive Immunity: No exposure to antigen, Immediate protection, Protection is short term, memory cells aren't produced
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What is an Autoimmune disease?
Where the immune system can't recognise self-antigens so treats them as foreign antigens and launches immune response against its own tissues. Autoimmune diseases are usually chronic (can be treated but not cured)
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Give two examples of Autoimmune diseases
Lupus: Immune system attacks cells in connective tissues. Damages tissues and causes painful inflammation, It can effect skin, joints, lungs and heart. Arthritis: immune system attacks cells in joints and causes pain and inflammation.
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What is a vaccine?
Contains antigens which when injected cause your body to produce memory cells against a particular pathogen without getting any symptoms. Causes immunisation. Vaccination is the administration of antigens into the body
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what is immunisation?
Process by which you develop immunity
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What is a herd Vaccination and what effect does it have?
Herd vaccination is when most people in a community are vaccinated so the disease becomes rare in the community. this means people who weren't vaccinated are unlikely to get the disease as there is no one to catch it from. It help prevent epidemics
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What do routine vaccines include?
The MMR: protects against measles, mumps and rubella. Contains attenuated measles mumps and rubella viruses. The meningitis C vaccine: protects against bacteria that causes meningitis C
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When are the routine vaccines given?
The MMR: 1 year old and again before they start school. The Meningitis C vaccine: 3 months old and then boosters are given to 1 year old and teenagers
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Why are booster vaccines given later on?
To ensure memory cells are produced
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Why does the influenza vaccine change every year?
Because the antigens on the surface of the influenza virus change regularly forming new strains of the virus. Memory cells produced from one vaccination with one strain of flu wont recognise other strains with different antigens.
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How do laboratories make vaccines against influenza?
They collect samples of the different strains and then they test the effectiveness of different influenza vaccines against them. New vaccines are developed and one is chosen every year that is most effective against the recently circulating strain
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Describe Natural Active immunity


When you become immune after catching a disease

Card 3


Describe Artificial Active immunity


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Card 4


What is Passive immunity?


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Card 5


Give an example of Natural Passive immunity


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