Immunity

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Define non-specific immune response.
Phagocytes able to digest range of pathogens.
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Define immune response.
Response to an antigen, involves lymphocytes and production of antibodies.
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Define primary defense.
Prevention of pathogen entering the body/blood.
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Give 4 examples of a primary defense.
Skin,nose,mouth/saliva, stomach acid.
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What is an antigen?
A molecule eg a glycoprotein than can stimulate an immune response to occur.
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What are the four types of immunity?
Active, passive, natural and artificial.
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What is active immunity?
Involves response from lymphocytes.
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What is passive immunity?
Only involves response from phagocytes.
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What is natural immunity?
The result of natural bodily functions.
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What is artificial immunity?
The result of medical intervention.
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What happens in antigen presentation?
The B lymphocytes come in to contact with an antigen presenting cell.
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What happens in clonal selection?
The B cell with complementary receptor is selected.
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What happens in clonal expansion?
The selected B cell divides by mitosis to create lots of copies.
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What do the B lymphocytes specialize into and why?
B plasma cells to be carried in blood and act as immunological memory and B memory cells to produce and secrete antibodies.
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What are the types of phagocytes?
Neutrophills and Macrophages.
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What happens in the first stage of phagocytosis?
The phagocyte binds to pathogen, receptor recognizes antigen on bacterium.
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What happens in the second stage of phagocytosis?
The phagocyte engulfs the pathogen into plasma membrane by endocytosis.
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What happens in the third stage of phagocytosis?
Forms phagasome.
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What happens in the fourth stage of phagocytosis?
Lysosomes surround and release hydrolytic enzymes.
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What happens in the firth stage of phagocytosis?
The pathogen is digested and waste product is formed, any useful is absorbed.
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What happens in the final stage of phagocytosis?
The waste product is removed by exocytosis.
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What is aggulation?
The antibodies form a clump around the pathogen so it is to large to enter the host cell.
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What is neutralization?
The antibodies bond to any toxins or bacterium that is trying to attach to receptors on cell surface to stop it affecting the host cell.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define immune response.

Back

Response to an antigen, involves lymphocytes and production of antibodies.

Card 3

Front

Define primary defense.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give 4 examples of a primary defense.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an antigen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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