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  • Created by: Jenna k
  • Created on: 15-04-14 17:01
Desciribe phagoycytosis
A phagocyte is attrached to a pathogen because of chemoacttractants. They bind and the phagocyte engulfs the pathogen. Lysosomes with in the cytoplasm of the phagocyte produce lysosomal enzymes that brake down the pathogen.
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Define antigen
a molecule that triggers an immune response
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Define antibody
a protein prodecued by lymphocytes in response to the appropriate antigen.
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Describe the structrue of an antibody
there are two sections to the y shaped protein. The variable and constant region. There are also heavy and light chains that make up the binding sites for the anitgen. When the anitgen and antiboy bind they form an antigen-antibody complex.
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Explain the process of cell mediated response.
Pathogens are engulfed and dismanteled in the phogocyte. The antigens are then prosented on its surface. The T helper cells activate the T cells to divide and produce T killer cells, memory cells, phagocytes and B cells. These all kill the pathogen.
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Explain the process of humeral response.
The pathogen is engulfed and dismanteled and its antigens prosented on the cell surface. T helper cell activated the B cells to divide into plasma and memory cells. Plasma cell produce many antibodies at once and the memory cell remember the antigens
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What is the differance between Cell mediated and humeral response?
CMR uses T lymphocytes and HR uses B lymphocytes
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What is a B lymphocyte
A white blood cell that matures in the bone marrow
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What is a T lymphocyte
A white blood cell that matures in the thymus glad.
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How is a secondary response stimulated?
The B cells form Humeral resonse created antibodie specific to the antigens of the pathogen. When they come into contact with that same pathogen again then the memory cells stimulate the plasma cells to prodece more of the same antibodies.
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Define antigenic variablity.
This is when the pathogen is changing so quickly that we can become infected more than once with a variation of the same pathogen. This cant be solved with a secondary response so a primary resoponse will have to do.
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Explain how vaccinations reduce disease outbrakes.
Vaccines stop the majority form getting the disease so they can protect the people that have not been vaccinated as they cant pass on the disease. This is called Herd immunity.
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Explain how vaccines work.
Vaccines are dead or inactive pathogens, that are injected into our blood stream and a primary response occures, however they are not as harmful as the pathogen cant cause the brake out.
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Describe what a monoclonal antibody is.
This is basically a hybrid of a cenercel and a plasma cell so the cancer cell produces antibodies that can diable and eradicate the caner cells. In theory.
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Describe the process of making a monoclonial antibody.
A plasma cell is taken form a mouse and a myelome cell is taken and they are fused together. They are then incubated so that they divide and there are many. They then are injected and the cancer is faught of by the mices own cells.
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What are the three ways that an anibody can chanllenge pathogens?
Opsonins, Aggultinins and lysins
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Explain opsonins
They bind with the antigens to act as markers so that the phaogocyte can recognide foreign cells and destroy them.
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Explain aggultinins.
They bind to antigest causing them to clump together so they cant enter the cells and reproduce.
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Explain lysins
They bind to the antigens and cause in to rupture and burst.
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Card 2


Define antigen


a molecule that triggers an immune response

Card 3


Define antibody


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Card 4


Describe the structrue of an antibody


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Card 5


Explain the process of cell mediated response.


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