CIE IGCSE Biology Flashcards: Inheritance

Flashcards for the definitions of the inheritance chapter for Cambridge International Examinations IGCSE Biology.

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  • Created by: Varshini
  • Created on: 10-03-13 07:06
Inheritance
The transmission of genetic information from generation to generation.
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Chromosome
A thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes.
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Gene
A length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation.
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Allele
Any of two or more alternative forms of a gene.
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Haploid nucleus
A nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg).
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Diploid nucleus
A nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells).
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Mitosis
Nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exact duplication of chromosomes.
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Meiosis
Meiosis as reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploid to haploid.
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Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG).
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Phenotype
The physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment (e.g. tall plant or green seed).
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Homozygous
Having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical homozygous individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding.
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Heterozygous
Having two different alleles of a particular gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure-breeding.
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Dominant
An allele that is expressed if it is present (e.g. T or G).
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Recessive
An allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g. t or g).
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Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
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Natural selection
The greater chance of passing on of genes by the best adapted organisms.
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Genetic engineering
Taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes.

Back

Chromosome

Card 3

Front

A length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Any of two or more alternative forms of a gene.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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hazelbarnes2303

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Really useful, Thanks.

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