IGCSE Theory

What is Data?
This is raw information to be processed. E.g. 648296529
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What is information?
Data that people understand. E.g. My telephone number is 648296529
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What is hardware?
The equipment that makes up the physical ICT system. E.g. Keyboard, Mouse and Monitor.
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What is an input device?
A device that allows you to input data/information. E.g. Keyboard.
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What is an output device?
A device that outputs data/information. E.g. Monitor.
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Name 3 kinds of computer?
Laptop, Personal Computer and Embedded Computer.
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What unit of measurement is used with processors?
Hz/GHz
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Write down as many pointing devices as you can.
Mouse, Joystick, Trackpad. Graphics Tablet, Tracker Ball
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Write down as many Scanners as you can.
Hand held, Flat bed, Sheet-fed, Bar Code Scanner, Biometric Scanner.
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Explain OMR?
Optical Mark Recognition. Interprets pencil marks on paper. Reads the position of the mark on the paper because it is darker than the unmarked area.
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Name one advantage of OMR.
No requirement to type in the information written on the paper forms, therefore input is faster.
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Name one disadvantage of OMR.
OMR form must be printed accurately because the position of the mark on the paper affects the accuracy of the input.
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Explain OCR?
The identification of printed or written text characters by a computer. Text is scanned and input to the computer, which attempts to recognise the charcaters.
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Name one advantage of OCR.
Text printed on paper can be converted to electronic form and edited.
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Name one disadvantage of OCR.
Character recognition not always accurate.
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Explain MICR?
Identifies printed ink on cheques.
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Name one advantage of MICR.
Saves time as forms are printed with with data already there.
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Name one disadvantage of MICR.
MICR characters have to be printed using magnetic ink which is expensive.
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Give one advantage of a Magnetic Stripe Card.
Data recorded on the card can be input directly into a computer.
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Give one disadvantage of a Magnetic Stripe Card.
Data can be affected by electromagnetic radiation. such as TV's and computers.
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What is the difference between a Magnetic Stripe Card and a Smart Card?
The Smart Card has a microprocessor chip embedded in it.
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Give examples of where you see Biometric Scanners?
Mobile phones, laptops, PC's, entry to buildings.
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Name one advantage of Biometric Scanning?
Person has to be present therefor making identity theft and fraud much less likely.
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Name one disadvantage of Biometric Scanning?
Identification using Biometric scanning is not yet sufficiently accurate.
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Give examples of sensors?
Record Light intensity, temperature and pressure.
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Give one advantage of sensors?
Can be placed in dangerous locations where people could get hurt.
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There are input devices and technologies related to computer input of sound. Name two?
Microphone, Speech recognition, touch-tone telephone.
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Name one advantage of audio input?
Do not have to learn to operate a keyboard.
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Name one disadvantage of audio input?
Not accurate if people do not pronounce words correctly.
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Remote controls use what to transmit their signal?
Infrared
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One advantage of using a remote?
Less movement and energy required to operate the device.
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One disadvantage of using the remote?
If signal is blocked then it cannot operate the device.
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Name two devices that use touch screen?
PDA's, Tablets, Smart phones.
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When using a printer what is Buffering?
This is a small amount of memory where the print jobs are stored.
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When using a printer what is Spooling?
This is the queuing process of jobs.
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Name four types of printer?
Inkjet, Laser, Thermal and Plotter.
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What is the name for a printer that comprises of a scanner and a printer?
Multi-functional printer.
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What is a sound card used for?
Controls the input and output of sound.
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Name 3 Control devices/actuators?
Motors, Valves, Heaters, Coolers
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How many bits are in a byte?
8
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One Kb equates to how many bytes?
1024 bytes
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What is the main storage device on a computer known as?
Hard drive
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Name three optical storage devices?
CD, DVD and Blu-ray.
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Name two flash storage methods?
Universal Serial Bus, Memory cards
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Using Magnetic tape means it uses serial access. What does this mean?
If you need to access data from the middle of the tape you need to start from the beginning and work your way through the tape till you find what you are looking for.
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Name two features of RAM
Can be written to and read from. RAM is volatile memory, meaning it is cleared when the computer is switched off.
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Name two features of ROM.
ROM is non-volatile meaning it retains information when the computer is turned odd. data cannot be changed.
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Name the two types of software?
Application and System.
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Give three examples of application software?
Word processing, Desktop Publishing and Spreadsheet.
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What application software would you use to create a website?
Web authoring software.
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What application software would you use to manage a project?
Project Management Software.
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What is bespoke software?
Software created to meet the needs of a particular client or business.
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What does GUI refer to?
Graphical User Interface.
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Name two kinds of GUI?
Command line, Menu driven.
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When saving a sound file what format should the sound be saves as?
mp3
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When saving a video what format should the video be saved as?
mp4
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What application uses .csv files?
Spreadsheets
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What do software licences allow?
Gives the right for a user to use the software under the specific conditions of the licence
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What is public domain software?
The owner of the software makes it available to anyone that wants to use it.
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What is shareware?
Software that is distributed free of charge. However, if the user wants to use this software they must then pay a subscription fee or licence fee.
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What network is confined to a small geographical area?
LAN
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Name 3 advantages of a LAN
Software and data files can be shared,Users can work together on a single file, Users can communicate, Users can access the network from ant computer.
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Name two disadvantages of a LAN
Initial set up costs are high, Increased risk of data corruption, Greater risk of viruses spreading.
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Name the two types of LAN
Client to Sever, Peer to Peer.
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Can you have a cabled LAN and a Wireless LAN?
Yes
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Bluetooth is a wireless communication method what is its range?
10 metres
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What network covers a large geographical area?
WAN
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What does bandwidth determine?
The volume of data that can be transmitted at a given time.
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What is the Internet?
An international network of networks that connects computers.
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What do you need to connect to the Internet?
ISP.
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What are the common methods of connection?
Dial up, Broadband.
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Give examples of domains.
.com, .co.uk, .ac.uk, .org.uk
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What can you do on the Internet?
Online shopping, banking. discussion groups, view web pages.
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What is an Intranet?
Local version of the Internet.
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What is a VPN?
A private network that runs within public networks, network traffic is encrypted.
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What does Cc refer to in an email?
Carbon Copy, meaning you send the email to other people.
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What does Bcc mean?
Blind Carbon Copy, meaning sending an email to other but you don't want other people to know you have sent it.
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Give three advantages of online shopping.
24/7 shopping, Don't need to leave home, Wide range of goods,
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Give three disadvantages of online shopping.
Can't try on, Can't check quality, Online fraud
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Give examples of online discussion forums.
Mailing Lists, Newsgroups, Chat. Video conferencing.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is information?

Back

Data that people understand. E.g. My telephone number is 648296529

Card 3

Front

What is hardware?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an input device?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an output device?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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