CIE IGCSE Biology (Definitions) - based on 2015 syllabus

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NUTRITION
taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them
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EXCRETION
removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements
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RESPIRATION
the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy
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SENSITIVITY
the ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses
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PRODUCTION
the processes that make more of the same kind of organism
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GROWTH
a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
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MOVEMENT
an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
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BINOMIAL SYSTEM
a system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species
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TISSUE
a group of cells with similar structures, working together to perform a shared function
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ORGAN
a structure made up of a group of tissues, working together to perform specific functions
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ORGAN SYSTEM
a group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body functions
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DIFFUSION
the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement
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ACTIVE TRANSPORT
movement of ions in or out of a cell through the cell membrane, from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration against a concentration gradient, using energy released during respiration
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OSMOSIS
the diffusion of water molecules from a region of higher water potential (dilute solution) to a region of their lower water potential (concentrated solution), through a partially permeable membrane
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CATALYST
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction
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ENZYMES
proteins that function as biological catalysts
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PHOTOSYNTHESIS
the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light
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LIMITING FACTOR
something present in the environment in such short supply that it restricts life processes
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BALANCED DIET
the daily intake of food containing the right amount of each nutrient to meet the body’s requirements, which depends on age, sex, activity of an individual, and climate
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INGESTION
taking substances (e.g. food, drink) into the body through the mouth
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EGESTION
passing out of food that has not been digested, as faeces, through the ****
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DIGESTION
the break-down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, watersoluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes
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ABSORPTION
movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood or lymph
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ASSIMILATION
movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells
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DEAMINATION
removal of the nitrogen containing part of amino acids to form urea, followed by release of energy from the remainder of the amino acids
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TRANSPIRATION
evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapour from plant leaves, through the stomata
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TRANSLOCATION
the movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem from regions of production to regions of storage OR to regions of utilisation in respiration or growth
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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood
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DOUBLE CIRCULATION
a low pressure circulation to the lungs and a high pressure circulation to the body tissues
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AEROBIC RESPIRATION
the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen
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ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen
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NERVOUS SYSTEM
a system consisting of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system, which together serve to regulate and coordinate body functions
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SENSE ORGANS
groups of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals
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HORMONE
a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver
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GEOTROPISM
a response in which a plant grows towards or away from gravity and phototropism as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from the direction from which light is coming
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HOMEOSTASIS
the maintenance of a constant internal environment
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DRUG
any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body
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SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring
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ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent
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POLLINATION
the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma)
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DEVELOPMENT
increase in complexity, including the specialization of cells
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INHERITANCE
the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation
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CHROMOSOME
a thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes
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GENE
a length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation
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ALLELE
any of two or more alternative forms of a gene
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HAPLOID NUCLEUS
a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg)
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DIPLOID NUCLEUS
a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells)
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MITOSIS
nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exact duplication of chromosomes
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MEOISIS
reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploid to haploid
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GENOTYPE
genetic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG)
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PHENOTYPE
the physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment (e.g. tall plant or green seed)
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HOMOZYGOUS
having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical homozygous individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding
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HETEROZYGOUS
having two different alleles of a particular gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure-breeding
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DOMINANT
an allele that is expressed if it is present (e.g. T or G)
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RECESSIVE
an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g. t or g)
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MUTATION
a change in a gene or chromosome
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NATURAL SELECTION
the greater chance of passing on of genes by the best adapted organisms
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GENETIC ENGINEERING
taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species
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FOOD CHAIN
a chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism to the next beginning with a producer (e.g. mahogany tree → caterpillar → song bird → hawk)
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FOOD WEB
a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem
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PRODUCER
an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis
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CONSUMER
an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms
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HERBIVORE
an animal that gets its energy by eating plants
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CARNIVORE
an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals
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DECOMPOSER
an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter
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ECOSYSTEM
a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or a lake
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TROPHIC LEVEL
the position of an organism in a food chain, food web or pyramid of biomass, numbers or energy
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POPULATION
a group of organisms of one species, living in the same area at the same time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements

Back

EXCRETION

Card 3

Front

the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the processes that make more of the same kind of organism

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Helpfull Definitions :D 

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