ICT Key Words (Hardware)

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INSTRUCTIONS
A set of directions that the computer follows in order to perform certain tasks
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PROGRAMME
A sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and perform
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GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTER
Computers that can run a wide variety of programmes which make them do different things e.g. word processing
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PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)
A general purpose computer that comes in many different forms e.g. laptops, PDAs, Mobile Phones
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WIFI
A facility allowing computers to connect to the internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area
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WEBCAM
A video camera connected to a computer, allowing its images to be seen by internet users
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SMART PHONE
A device that's mainly concerned with phone function but also has e-mail, internet and other features
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SYSTEM
A collection of parts that work together for a particular purpose
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DEDICATED COMPUTER
A computer designed to work in just one particular situation
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EMBEDDED SYSTEM
A computer system embedded in an electronic device that controls it
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PROCESSOR
(AKA Central Processor Unit CPU/microprocessor) A set of electronic circuits that control the computer by running the programmes
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RAM
Random Access Memory - Stores data and a computer needs a lot of RAM. This data is all stored in the same way, in groups of 1s and 0s. RAM loses all it's data when the power is switched off.
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CONTROL UNIT
Part of the processor that runs the programmes and directs operations
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ALU
Arithmetic Logic Unit - This is where the processor carries out calculations and comparisons
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ROM
Read-Only Memory - Contains the basic instructions to get the computer started at boot up. The instructions are there all the time, even when the computer is switched off
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BIT
Binary Digit - In RAM each 1 or 0 is called a 'bit' of data. RAM is usually divided into groups of 8 bits
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BYTE
8 bits make up 1 byte
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BUFFER
A part of RAM that is used for data to be queued up in whilst waiting to be processed
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PDA
A small, hand-held computer
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WAP
Wireless Access Protocol - a set of standards that allows PDAs and mobile phones to access the internet
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MICR
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
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INPUT DEVICES
Devices that normally convert physical energy into electrical pulses
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DIGITISING
Convert (pictures or sound) into a digital form that can be processed by a computer
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OCR
Optical Character Recognition - Input device that reads human readable letters
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OMR
Optical Mark Recognition - Input device that reads pen marks on pre-printed forms
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BAR CODE
A machine-readable code in the form of numbers and a pattern of parallel lines of varying widths
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RFID
Radio Frequency Indentification - Input Device that has wireless non-contact use of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data
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SENSOR
Input device that detect events in the real world to produce electric signals
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ANALOUGE
Energy that varies continously
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DIGITAL
Signals expressed as series of the digits 0 and 1
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VDU
Visual Display Unit - Screen
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OUTPUT
A place where power or information leaves a system
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INPUT
A place where, or a device through which, energy or information enters a system
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HARD COPY
Printed output e.g. receipt, printed paper
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TFT-LCD
Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display - A new type of screen
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TONER
A powdered chemical used in photocopying machines and laser printers, which is transferred onto paper to form the printed image
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PLOTTER
A computer that guides a pen over paper. Used for large drawings and plans
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ACTUATOR
Devices that switch on and off circuits
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ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange - A code for storing letter/characters
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UNICODE
A code for storing letters/characters that allows characters from all languages
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PIXELS
Set of dots of different colours that make up a digital picture
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MP3 PLAYER
A portable media player, or digital audio player, is a consumer electronics device that is capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, video, documents, etc
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KILOBYTE
KB - A unit of data meaning 1024 bytes
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MEGABYTE
MB - A unit of data meaning 1024 KB
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GIGABYTE
GB - A unit of data meaning 1024 MB
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TERABYTE
TB - A unit of data meaning 1024 GB
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FLASH MEMORY
A type of ROM that can be erased and reprogrammed thousands of times. Used in secondary storage
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BLUE-RAY
A standard that allows more data to be stored on an optical disk. It uses a shorter wavelength than CDs and DVDs
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SECONDARY STORAGE
AKA Backing up - Storage used to hold data for the future
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USB DRIVE
AKA Memory stick - A type of flash memory that we store lots of data on. Can be re-written
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MEMORY CARD
Flash memory device designed to fit into camera and mobile devices
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VIRTUAL MEMORY
A temporary type of storage when a big programme is running. Its not 'real' storage
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READ-ONLY
Memory read at high speed but not capable of being changed by program instructions
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CD-ROM
A compact disc used as a read-only optical memory device for a computer system
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DVD-ROM
A DVD used in a computer for displaying data
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HARD DISKS
A type of storage that has very large capacity and uses magnetic technology
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NETWORK
Group of connected devices and computers e.g. internet, crl
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DONGLE
A device that plugs into the USB port to allow laptop users with internet
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POP
Post Office Protocol - Allows retrieval of e-mail from a TCP/IP server
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IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol - Another e-mail retrieval set of standards
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HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol - Controls the sending of web pages
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ENCRYPTED
Convert (information or data) into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access
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BROADBAND
A communication link that delivers data at 256kbps
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MP3
A means of compressing a sound sequence into a very small file, to enable digital storage
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BLUETOOTH
A wireless protocol used for communicating over short distances
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GPS
Global Positioning System - This is what sat navs use to determine their location using satellites
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PROTOCOL
The rules and standards that devices use when communicating with each other
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IEEE 802.11
A set of rules (standards) that ensures that connected devices work together
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HOTSPOT
A way that computers can connect to the internet. They are common in many cafes, hotels and airports. Some cities have set up networks of hotspots to encourage visitors and many hotels provide access for free
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ROUTER
Small physical devices that join multiple networks together that gives onward access to the internet
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BANDWIDTH
The range of frequencies carried in a communication link. It also means the rate at which data is delivered
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BPS
Bits per second - The unit that the rate of at which data is delivered
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KBPS
Kilobits per second - A bigger unit worth 1,000 bps
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MBSP
Megabits per second - A bigger unit worth 1,000,000 bps
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TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - The set of protocols that are used to control communications on the internet and other networks
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VOIP
Voice Over Internet Protocol - Allows telephone calls to be made using services such as Skype
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WEP
Wireless Equivalent Privacy
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WPA2
WiFi Protected Access - Something which an access point can be set up to which uses a 40 bit key to scramble the signals. Without this key it is not possible to gain access to the hotspot
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SSID
Service Set Identifier - The network that's accessed via the hotspot. This can be hidden to lower the risk of it being used by unathorised
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MAC ADDRESS
Media Access Control - A unique number assigned to each network card
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NODE
Each device connected to a network is called a node
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DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
The processing power of many computers combined
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VPN
Virtual Private Network - This is held on a remote server and is accessed from any computer that is connected to the internet
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NIC
Network Interface Card - This is needed for each device so that it can send and receive the network signals
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FIBRE OPTIC
A technology that uses glass threads to transmit data
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HUB
A passive device that connects lots of computers to the carrier medium. They send data to all connections
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SWITCH
A device that connects lots of computers to the carrier medium. They send data in specific directions
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LAN
Local Area Network - A network on one site. The connecting hardware is owned by the same organisation that owns the network. It allows the organisation to have complete control over its data
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WAN
Wide Area Network - A network that covers a large geographical area, possibly even the whole world e.g. the internet
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LEASED LINE
Something which a telecom company uses where it pays for exclusive use of connections
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CLIENT-SERVER
This is where one or more computers act as a service provider to others
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SERVER
The provider is a powerful computer called a server
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PEER-TO-PEER SYSTEM
A computer system where all computers are equal
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TOPOLOGY
The way that a LAN is laid out
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STAR NETWORK
In this network, the client machines are connected to a central switch that attaches them to whichever servers are required
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BUS NETWORK
In this network, all the computers are attached to a cable backbone
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RING NETWORK
In this network, a common cable passes through each machine. The data passes round in one direction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and perform

Back

PROGRAMME

Card 3

Front

Computers that can run a wide variety of programmes which make them do different things e.g. word processing

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A general purpose computer that comes in many different forms e.g. laptops, PDAs, Mobile Phones

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A facility allowing computers to connect to the internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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